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Racial disparities in the survival of American children, adolescents, and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer 2016; 122(17):2723-30C

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Race-based survival in children and adolescents with hematologic malignancies has been a national challenge for decades. Large-scale investigations of age- and race-based survival trends over time in these patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether race- and age-related differences in pediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) leukemia and lymphoma survival persist and to what extent these differences have changed over time.

METHODS

Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, this study investigated the outcomes of black and white (1975-2012; n = 27,369) and white and Hispanic (1992-2012; n = 20,574) children (0-14 years old) and AYAs (15-39 years old) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Estimates of 5- and 10-year relative survival were compared over time.

RESULTS

Trends showed a convergence of survival for white and black children with ALL but a divergence in survival for AYA patients. Hispanic children and AYAs both suffered inferior outcomes. Trends for AML revealed persistent survival differences between black and white children and suggested worsening disparities for AYAs. Survival trends in HL revealed sustained survival differences between black and white AYA patients, whereas no differences were found in Hispanic and white patient outcomes for AML or HL.

CONCLUSIONS

Although survival for children and AYAs with ALL, AML, and HL has improved over the past 4 decades, differences persist between black, white, and Hispanic children and AYAs; survival disparities between black and white children with ALL have been nearly eliminated. Strategies aimed at identifying causality and reducing disparities are warranted. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2723-2730. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California.Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California.Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, California. Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.Human Oncology & Pathogenesis Program and Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27286322

Citation

Kahn, Justine M., et al. "Racial Disparities in the Survival of American Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, and Hodgkin Lymphoma." Cancer, vol. 122, no. 17, 2016, pp. 2723-30.
Kahn JM, Keegan TH, Tao L, et al. Racial disparities in the survival of American children, adolescents, and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer. 2016;122(17):2723-30.
Kahn, J. M., Keegan, T. H., Tao, L., Abrahão, R., Bleyer, A., & Viny, A. D. (2016). Racial disparities in the survival of American children, adolescents, and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer, 122(17), pp. 2723-30. doi:10.1002/cncr.30089.
Kahn JM, et al. Racial Disparities in the Survival of American Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, and Hodgkin Lymphoma. Cancer. 2016 Sep 1;122(17):2723-30. PubMed PMID: 27286322.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Racial disparities in the survival of American children, adolescents, and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma. AU - Kahn,Justine M, AU - Keegan,Theresa H M, AU - Tao,Li, AU - Abrahão,Renata, AU - Bleyer,Archie, AU - Viny,Aaron D, Y1 - 2016/06/10/ PY - 2016/01/05/received PY - 2016/03/11/revised PY - 2016/04/22/accepted PY - 2016/6/11/entrez PY - 2016/6/11/pubmed PY - 2017/5/26/medline KW - Epidemiology KW - Surveillance KW - adolescent KW - adolescent and young adult (AYA) KW - and End Results (SEER) KW - disparities KW - leukemia KW - lymphoma KW - pediatric KW - race KW - survival SP - 2723 EP - 30 JF - Cancer JO - Cancer VL - 122 IS - 17 N2 - BACKGROUND: Race-based survival in children and adolescents with hematologic malignancies has been a national challenge for decades. Large-scale investigations of age- and race-based survival trends over time in these patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether race- and age-related differences in pediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) leukemia and lymphoma survival persist and to what extent these differences have changed over time. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, this study investigated the outcomes of black and white (1975-2012; n = 27,369) and white and Hispanic (1992-2012; n = 20,574) children (0-14 years old) and AYAs (15-39 years old) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Estimates of 5- and 10-year relative survival were compared over time. RESULTS: Trends showed a convergence of survival for white and black children with ALL but a divergence in survival for AYA patients. Hispanic children and AYAs both suffered inferior outcomes. Trends for AML revealed persistent survival differences between black and white children and suggested worsening disparities for AYAs. Survival trends in HL revealed sustained survival differences between black and white AYA patients, whereas no differences were found in Hispanic and white patient outcomes for AML or HL. CONCLUSIONS: Although survival for children and AYAs with ALL, AML, and HL has improved over the past 4 decades, differences persist between black, white, and Hispanic children and AYAs; survival disparities between black and white children with ALL have been nearly eliminated. Strategies aimed at identifying causality and reducing disparities are warranted. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2723-2730. © 2016 American Cancer Society. SN - 1097-0142 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27286322/Racial_disparities_in_the_survival_of_American_children_adolescents_and_young_adults_with_acute_lymphoblastic_leukemia_acute_myelogenous_leukemia_and_Hodgkin_lymphoma_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30089 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -