Assessment of the nutritional value daily food rations of children aged 1-4 years.Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2016; 67(2):169-77.RP
An adequately balanced daily food rations (DFR) providing the organism with a sufficient amount of energy and nutrients, including minerals, is particularly important in infanthood and early childhood due to the child's intensive physical, intellectual and motoric development.
The aim of this study was to evaluation the supply of energy, nutrients and vitamins in daily food rations of children fed at home and in nursery schools.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
75 children aged 1-4 years were the research subjects. They were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The daily consumption of energy and vitamins was assessed by means of a 7-day 24-hour nutritional interview made with current note taking and by means of a computer database (Dietetyk 2). Significant differences in the content of energy, nutrients and vitamins in the DFR were investigated using the two-way analysis of variance (Statistica 10.0) at significance level p≤0.05.
Neither the children's sex nor age had influence on the intake of energy and macronutrients. Apart from the amount of energy (68-101.8% RDA) and proteins (183-288% RDA) these values were generally normal, but they had influence on the content of vitamins in the DFR. The DFR was characterised by generally excessive content of vitamins A, B(2), B(6) and B(12). However, in comparison with the RDA the intake was significantly higher in the DFR of the youngest children (12-24 months old). In the group aged 37-48 months there were significantly higher values in the intake of vitamins B(2) (317% vs 137% RDA) and B6 (334% vs 147% RDA). On the other hand, in comparison with the RDA, the DFR provided too small amounts of vitamins D, E, folates and vitamin C. The DFR of the youngest children (12-24 months old) contained significantly greater amounts of vitamins: D (41.3% vs 16.2% RDA), E (83.6% vs 63.5% RDA) and C (102.0% vs 48.6% RDA), as compared with the children aged 37-48 months. Only the content of vitamins B(1) and PP in the children's DFR was similar or slightly greater than the RDA.
The intake of energy in the DFR of the children aged 1-4 years was generally comparable, but in the children aged 37-48 months it did not satisfy the daily demand. In all the age groups under study the supply of macronutrients satisfied about 100% of the demand, whereas the supply of protein and sucrose was excessive. The children aged 12-24 months consumed more vitamins D, E, B(2), PP, B(6), B(12), C than the children aged 37-48 months. The supply of vitamins D, E, C and folates was too low, whereas the consumption of vitamins: B(2), B(6) and B(12) exceeded the recommended daily intake.