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The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.
J Food Sci. 2016 Jul; 81(7):C1662-8.JF

Abstract

Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ, Beijing, 100083, China.College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ, Beijing, 100083, China.College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ, Beijing, 100083, China.College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ, Beijing, 100083, China.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27300762

Citation

Yuan, Heng, et al. "The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic." Journal of Food Science, vol. 81, no. 7, 2016, pp. C1662-8.
Yuan H, Sun L, Chen M, et al. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic. J Food Sci. 2016;81(7):C1662-8.
Yuan, H., Sun, L., Chen, M., & Wang, J. (2016). The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic. Journal of Food Science, 81(7), C1662-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13365
Yuan H, et al. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic. J Food Sci. 2016;81(7):C1662-8. PubMed PMID: 27300762.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic. AU - Yuan,Heng, AU - Sun,Linjuan, AU - Chen,Min, AU - Wang,Jun, Y1 - 2016/06/14/ PY - 2016/01/20/received PY - 2016/04/02/revised PY - 2016/05/13/accepted PY - 2016/6/15/entrez PY - 2016/6/15/pubmed PY - 2017/4/15/medline KW - Amadori compounds KW - Heyns compounds KW - black garlic KW - fructan KW - sugars SP - C1662 EP - 8 JF - Journal of food science JO - J Food Sci VL - 81 IS - 7 N2 - Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. SN - 1750-3841 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27300762/The_Comparison_of_the_Contents_of_Sugar_Amadori_and_Heyns_Compounds_in_Fresh_and_Black_Garlic_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13365 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -