Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging.J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2016; 18(1):38JC
Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold.
An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14-26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets.
For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p < 0.05, ANOVA). Similarly, for retrospective undersampling, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or better correlation with reference displacement and strain data at rate-2 and better correlation at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE. Bland-Altman analyses showed similar or better agreement for displacement and strain data at rate-2 and better agreement at rate-4 using BLOSM-SENSE compared to SENSE for retrospectively-undersampled data. Rate-2 and rate-4 prospectively-accelerated cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain.
BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be acquired in a single breathhold of 8-14 heartbeats with high image quality and accurate assessment of myocardial displacement and circumferential strain.