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Respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship: A three-year prospective study.
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016 Jul-Aug; 14(4):389-97.TM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cruise ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces providing an environment for transmission of infections. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and describe the spectrum of respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness among passengers and crew of cruise Ship A.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013 on cruise Ship A, including passengers and crew who presented with symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory infection (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI) and gastrointestinal illness (GI). Advice about preventive measures of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and influenza vaccination was given to passengers and crew. Data were collected by using one standardized form per patient.

RESULTS

The most common destination was Northern Europe (90.7%). The mean duration of cruise was 10.6 days; 440 passengers and 421 crew members who sought medical attention were studied (mean age 72.6 ± 9.5 and 33 ± 7 years, respectively). ILI, ARI and GI were diagnosed in 32.7%, 15.9%, 17% and 10.9%, 80%, 0.2% of ill passengers and crew, respectively. The association of ARI, ILI and GI incidence in passengers was statistically significant with season, destination and duration of travel; the incidence for all illnesses was higher during winter, for travel to South America and for >14 days (p-value<0.001).

CONCLUSION

ARI, ILI and GI continue to pose a burden on cruise travel; therefore pre-travel advice is crucial for passengers and crew regarding respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Surveillance and implementation of control measures are important for outbreak prevention.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Travel Medicine Office, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: androulapavli@yahoo.com.Department for Interventions in Health-Care Facilities, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece.Cruise Ships Medical Consultant, Medical Director MMS, United Kingdom.Department for Interventions in Health-Care Facilities, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece.National Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Nursing, Athens, Greece.Department of Microbiology, National Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens Greece.4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27320130

Citation

Pavli, Androula, et al. "Respiratory Infections and Gastrointestinal Illness On a Cruise Ship: a Three-year Prospective Study." Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 14, no. 4, 2016, pp. 389-97.
Pavli A, Maltezou HC, Papadakis A, et al. Respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship: A three-year prospective study. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016;14(4):389-97.
Pavli, A., Maltezou, H. C., Papadakis, A., Katerelos, P., Saroglou, G., Tsakris, A., & Tsiodras, S. (2016). Respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship: A three-year prospective study. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 14(4), 389-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2016.05.019
Pavli A, et al. Respiratory Infections and Gastrointestinal Illness On a Cruise Ship: a Three-year Prospective Study. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016 Jul-Aug;14(4):389-97. PubMed PMID: 27320130.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship: A three-year prospective study. AU - Pavli,Androula, AU - Maltezou,Helena C, AU - Papadakis,Antonis, AU - Katerelos,Panagiotis, AU - Saroglou,Georgios, AU - Tsakris,Athanasios, AU - Tsiodras,Sotirios, Y1 - 2016/06/15/ PY - 2015/11/16/received PY - 2016/05/26/revised PY - 2016/05/27/accepted PY - 2016/6/21/entrez PY - 2016/6/21/pubmed PY - 2017/4/22/medline KW - Acute respiratory infection KW - Crew KW - Cruise KW - Influenza-like illness KW - Passengers SP - 389 EP - 97 JF - Travel medicine and infectious disease JO - Travel Med Infect Dis VL - 14 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cruise ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces providing an environment for transmission of infections. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and describe the spectrum of respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness among passengers and crew of cruise Ship A. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013 on cruise Ship A, including passengers and crew who presented with symptoms suggestive of acute respiratory infection (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI) and gastrointestinal illness (GI). Advice about preventive measures of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and influenza vaccination was given to passengers and crew. Data were collected by using one standardized form per patient. RESULTS: The most common destination was Northern Europe (90.7%). The mean duration of cruise was 10.6 days; 440 passengers and 421 crew members who sought medical attention were studied (mean age 72.6 ± 9.5 and 33 ± 7 years, respectively). ILI, ARI and GI were diagnosed in 32.7%, 15.9%, 17% and 10.9%, 80%, 0.2% of ill passengers and crew, respectively. The association of ARI, ILI and GI incidence in passengers was statistically significant with season, destination and duration of travel; the incidence for all illnesses was higher during winter, for travel to South America and for >14 days (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSION: ARI, ILI and GI continue to pose a burden on cruise travel; therefore pre-travel advice is crucial for passengers and crew regarding respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Surveillance and implementation of control measures are important for outbreak prevention. SN - 1873-0442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27320130/Respiratory_infections_and_gastrointestinal_illness_on_a_cruise_ship:_A_three_year_prospective_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1477-8939(16)30068-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -