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Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial.
Acta Ophthalmol 2017; 95(6):567-575AO

Abstract

PURPOSE

To study, for the first time, the effect of wearing ready-made glasses and glasses with power determined by self-refraction on children's quality of life.

METHODS

This is a randomized, double-masked non-inferiority trial. Children in grades 7 and 8 (age 12-15 years) in nine Chinese secondary schools, with presenting visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 improved with refraction to ≥6/7.5 bilaterally, refractive error ≤-1.0 D and <2.0 D of anisometropia and astigmatism bilaterally, were randomized to receive ready-made spectacles (RM) or identical-appearing spectacles with power determined by: subjective cycloplegic retinoscopy by a university optometrist (U), a rural refractionist (R) or non-cycloplegic self-refraction (SR). Main study outcome was global score on the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life-42 (NEI-RQL-42) after 2 months of wearing study glasses, comparing other groups with the U group, adjusting for baseline score.

RESULTS

Only one child (0.18%) was excluded for anisometropia or astigmatism. A total of 426 eligible subjects (mean age 14.2 years, 84.5% without glasses at baseline) were allocated to U [103 (24.2%)], RM [113 (26.5%)], R [108 (25.4%)] and SR [102 (23.9%)] groups, respectively. Baseline and endline score data were available for 398 (93.4%) of subjects. In multiple regression models adjusting for baseline score, older age (p = 0.003) and baseline spectacle wear (p = 0.016), but not study group assignment, were significantly associated with lower final score.

CONCLUSION

Quality of life wearing ready-mades or glasses based on self-refraction did not differ from that with cycloplegic refraction by an experienced optometrist in this non-inferiority trial.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Henan Eye Institute, Henan Eye Hospital, Henan Provincial People's Hospital and People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.Department of Ophthalmology, Huidong People's Hospital, Huizhou, China.Guangming Eye Hospital, Yangjiang, China.State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Center for Vision in the Developing World, St Catherine's College, Oxford, UK.National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.New England College of Optometry, Boston, Maryland, USA.State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. ORBIS International, New York, New York, USA. Centre for Public Health, Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27321197

Citation

Zhou, Zhongqiang, et al. "Self-refraction, Ready-made Glasses and Quality of Life Among Rural Myopic Chinese Children: a Non-inferiority Randomized Trial." Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 95, no. 6, 2017, pp. 567-575.
Zhou Z, Chen T, Jin L, et al. Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95(6):567-575.
Zhou, Z., Chen, T., Jin, L., Zheng, D., Chen, S., He, M., ... Congdon, N. G. (2017). Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial. Acta Ophthalmologica, 95(6), pp. 567-575. doi:10.1111/aos.13149.
Zhou Z, et al. Self-refraction, Ready-made Glasses and Quality of Life Among Rural Myopic Chinese Children: a Non-inferiority Randomized Trial. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95(6):567-575. PubMed PMID: 27321197.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial. AU - Zhou,Zhongqiang, AU - Chen,Tingting, AU - Jin,Ling, AU - Zheng,Dongxing, AU - Chen,Shangji, AU - He,Mingguang, AU - Silver,Josh, AU - Ellwein,Leon, AU - Moore,Bruce, AU - Congdon,Nathan G, Y1 - 2016/06/20/ PY - 2015/09/04/received PY - 2016/04/30/accepted PY - 2016/6/21/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline PY - 2016/6/21/entrez KW - China KW - children KW - conventional refraction KW - conventional spectacles KW - myopia KW - ready-made spectacles KW - rural refractionist KW - self-refraction KW - visual function SP - 567 EP - 575 JF - Acta ophthalmologica JO - Acta Ophthalmol VL - 95 IS - 6 N2 - PURPOSE: To study, for the first time, the effect of wearing ready-made glasses and glasses with power determined by self-refraction on children's quality of life. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-masked non-inferiority trial. Children in grades 7 and 8 (age 12-15 years) in nine Chinese secondary schools, with presenting visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 improved with refraction to ≥6/7.5 bilaterally, refractive error ≤-1.0 D and <2.0 D of anisometropia and astigmatism bilaterally, were randomized to receive ready-made spectacles (RM) or identical-appearing spectacles with power determined by: subjective cycloplegic retinoscopy by a university optometrist (U), a rural refractionist (R) or non-cycloplegic self-refraction (SR). Main study outcome was global score on the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life-42 (NEI-RQL-42) after 2 months of wearing study glasses, comparing other groups with the U group, adjusting for baseline score. RESULTS: Only one child (0.18%) was excluded for anisometropia or astigmatism. A total of 426 eligible subjects (mean age 14.2 years, 84.5% without glasses at baseline) were allocated to U [103 (24.2%)], RM [113 (26.5%)], R [108 (25.4%)] and SR [102 (23.9%)] groups, respectively. Baseline and endline score data were available for 398 (93.4%) of subjects. In multiple regression models adjusting for baseline score, older age (p = 0.003) and baseline spectacle wear (p = 0.016), but not study group assignment, were significantly associated with lower final score. CONCLUSION: Quality of life wearing ready-mades or glasses based on self-refraction did not differ from that with cycloplegic refraction by an experienced optometrist in this non-inferiority trial. SN - 1755-3768 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27321197/Self-refraction,_ready-made_glasses_and_quality_of_life_among_rural_myopic_Chinese_children:_a_non-inferiority_randomized_trial L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13149 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -