Inhibitory activities of major anthraquinones and other constituents from Cassia obtusifolia against β-secretase and cholinesterases.J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Sep 15; 191:152-160.JE
Semen Cassiae has been traditionally used as an herbal remedy for liver, eye, and acute inflammatory diseases. Recent pharmacological reports have indicated that Cassiae semen has neuroprotective effects, attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD) models.
AIM OF THE STUDY
The basic goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-AD activities of C. obtusifolia and its major constituents. Previously, the extract of C. obtusifolia seeds, was reported to have memory enhancing properties and anti-AD activity to ameliorate amyloid β-induced synaptic dysfunction. However, the responsible components of C. obtusifolia seeds in an AD are currently still unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of C. obtusifolia and its constituents against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) enzyme activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In vitro cholinesterase enzyme assays by using AChE, BChE, and BACE1 were performed. We also scrutinized the potentials of Cassiae semen active component as BACE1 inhibitors via enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulation.
In vitro enzyme assays demonstrated that C. obtusifolia and its major constituents have promising inhibitory potential against AChE, BChE, and BACE1. All Cassiae semen constituents exhibited potent inhibitory activities against AChE and BACE1 with IC50 values of 6.29-109µg/mL and 0.94-190µg/mL, whereas alaternin, questin, and toralactone gentiobioside exhibited significant inhibitory activities against BChE with IC50 values of 113.10-137.74µg/mL. Kinetic study revealed that alaternin noncompetitively inhibited, whereas cassiaside and emodin showed mixed-type inhibition against BACE1. Furthermore, molecular docking simulation results demonstrated that hydroxyl group of alaternin and emodin tightly interacted with the active site residues of BACE1 and their relevant binding energies (-6.62 and -6.89kcal/mol), indicating a higher affinity and tighter binding capacity of these compounds for the active site of BACE1.
The findings of the present study suggest the potential of C. obtusifolia and its major constituents for use in the development of therapeutic or preventive agents for AD, especially through inhibition of AChE, BChE and BACE1 activities.