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Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A).
Antiviral Res. 2016 08; 132:154-64.AR

Abstract

In the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. However, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. Here, we report on the ability of the novel cranberry extract Oximacro(®) and its purified A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in vitro. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that Oximacro(®) prevents adsorption of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to target cells. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Oximacro(®) and its PACs-A target the viral envelope glycoproteins gD and gB, thus resulting in the loss of infectivity of HSV particles. Moreover, Oximacro(®) completely retained its anti-HSV activity even at acidic pHs (3.0 and 4.0) and in the presence of 10% human serum proteins; conditions that mimic the physiological properties of the vagina - a potential therapeutic location for Oximacro(®). Taken together, these findings indicate Oximacro(®) as an attractive candidate for the development of novel microbicides of natural origin for the prevention of HSV infections.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Microbiology and Virology Unit, Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, 10123 Turin, Italy. Electronic address: mariaelena.terlizzi@unito.it.Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, 10123 Turin, Italy; Biosfered S.r.l., 10135 Turin, Italy. Electronic address: andrea.occhipinti@unito.it.Microbiology and Virology Unit, Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, 10123 Turin, Italy. Electronic address: anna.luganini@unito.it.Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, 10123 Turin, Italy; Biosfered S.r.l., 10135 Turin, Italy. Electronic address: massimo.maffei@unito.it.Microbiology and Virology Unit, Department of Life Science and Systems Biology, University of Turin, 10123 Turin, Italy. Electronic address: giorgio.gribaudo@unito.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27321663

Citation

Terlizzi, Maria Elena, et al. "Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Type 1 and Type 2 Infections By Oximacro(®), a Cranberry Extract With a High Content of A-type Proanthocyanidins (PACs-A)." Antiviral Research, vol. 132, 2016, pp. 154-64.
Terlizzi ME, Occhipinti A, Luganini A, et al. Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A). Antiviral Res. 2016;132:154-64.
Terlizzi, M. E., Occhipinti, A., Luganini, A., Maffei, M. E., & Gribaudo, G. (2016). Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A). Antiviral Research, 132, 154-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.06.006
Terlizzi ME, et al. Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Type 1 and Type 2 Infections By Oximacro(®), a Cranberry Extract With a High Content of A-type Proanthocyanidins (PACs-A). Antiviral Res. 2016;132:154-64. PubMed PMID: 27321663.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A). AU - Terlizzi,Maria Elena, AU - Occhipinti,Andrea, AU - Luganini,Anna, AU - Maffei,Massimo E, AU - Gribaudo,Giorgio, Y1 - 2016/06/16/ PY - 2016/02/29/received PY - 2016/06/07/revised PY - 2016/06/13/accepted PY - 2016/6/21/entrez PY - 2016/6/21/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline KW - A-type proanthocyanidins KW - Antiviral activity KW - Herpes simplex virus 1 KW - Herpes simplex virus 2 KW - Microbicides KW - Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) extract SP - 154 EP - 64 JF - Antiviral research JO - Antiviral Res. VL - 132 N2 - In the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. However, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. Here, we report on the ability of the novel cranberry extract Oximacro(®) and its purified A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in vitro. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that Oximacro(®) prevents adsorption of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to target cells. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Oximacro(®) and its PACs-A target the viral envelope glycoproteins gD and gB, thus resulting in the loss of infectivity of HSV particles. Moreover, Oximacro(®) completely retained its anti-HSV activity even at acidic pHs (3.0 and 4.0) and in the presence of 10% human serum proteins; conditions that mimic the physiological properties of the vagina - a potential therapeutic location for Oximacro(®). Taken together, these findings indicate Oximacro(®) as an attractive candidate for the development of novel microbicides of natural origin for the prevention of HSV infections. SN - 1872-9096 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27321663/Inhibition_of_herpes_simplex_type_1_and_type_2_infections_by_Oximacro_®__a_cranberry_extract_with_a_high_content_of_A_type_proanthocyanidins__PACs_A__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-3542(16)30119-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -