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Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing.
J Insect Sci. 2016; 16(1)JI

Abstract

Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage.

Authors+Show Affiliations

USDA-ARS Southern Insect Management Research Unit, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA yc.zhu@ars.usda.gov.USDA-ARS Southern Insect Management Research Unit, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.USDA-ARS Southern Insect Management Research Unit, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27324587

Citation

Zhu, Yu-Cheng, et al. "Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense From Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing." Journal of Insect Science (Online), vol. 16, no. 1, 2016.
Zhu YC, Yao J, Luttrell R. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing. J Insect Sci. 2016;16(1).
Zhu, Y. C., Yao, J., & Luttrell, R. (2016). Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing. Journal of Insect Science (Online), 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iew041
Zhu YC, Yao J, Luttrell R. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense From Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing. J Insect Sci. 2016;16(1) PubMed PMID: 27324587.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing. AU - Zhu,Yu-Cheng, AU - Yao,Jianxiu, AU - Luttrell,Randall, Y1 - 2016/06/20/ PY - 2016/02/18/received PY - 2016/05/12/accepted PY - 2016/6/22/entrez PY - 2016/6/22/pubmed PY - 2017/2/10/medline KW - Lygus lineolaris KW - TPB KW - cDNA KW - detoxification KW - extra-oral digestion KW - polygalacturonases KW - saliva KW - salivary gland JF - Journal of insect science (Online) JO - J Insect Sci VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage. SN - 1536-2442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27324587/Identification_of_Genes_Potentially_Responsible_for_extra_Oral_Digestion_and_Overcoming_Plant_Defense_from_Salivary_Glands_of_the_Tarnished_Plant_Bug__Hemiptera:_Miridae__Using_cDNA_Sequencing_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jisesa/iew041 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -