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The annual Hajj pilgrimage-minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun; 47:79-82.IJ

Abstract

Mass gatherings at religious events can pose major public health challenges, particularly the transmission of infectious diseases. Every year the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosts the Hajj pilgrimage, the largest gathering held on an annual basis where over 2 million people come to KSA from over 180 countries. Living together in crowded conditions exposes the pilgrims and the local population to a range infectious diseases. Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract bacterial and viral infections can spread rapidly and affect attendees of mass gatherings. Lethal infectious disease outbreaks were common during Hajj in the 19th and 20th centuries although they have now been controlled to a great extent by the huge investments made by the KSA into public health prevention and surveillance programs. The KSA provides regular updated Hajj travel advice and health regulations through international public health agencies such as the WHO, Public Health England, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Hajj travel agencies. During the Hajj, an additional 25 000 health workers are deployed; there are eight hospitals in Makkah and Mina complete with state-of-the-art surgical wards and intensive care units made specifically available for pilgrims. All medical facilities offer high quality of care, and services are offered free to Hajj pilgrims to ensure the risks of ill health to all pilgrims and KSA residents are minimal. A summary of the key health issues that arise in pilgrims from Europe during Hajj and of the KSA Hajj guidelines, together with other factors that may play a role in reducing the risks to pilgrims and to wider global health security, is provided herein.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Muslim Council of Great Britain, London, UK. Electronic address: msshafi12@gmail.com.Public Health England, London, UK; Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, UK.London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.Imperial College London, London, UK.Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, and Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Global Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK.Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark; The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27343984

Citation

Shafi, Shuja, et al. "The Annual Hajj Pilgrimage-minimizing the Risk of Ill Health in Pilgrims From Europe and Opportunity for Driving the Best Prevention and Health Promotion Guidelines." International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, 2016, pp. 79-82.
Shafi S, Dar O, Khan M, et al. The annual Hajj pilgrimage-minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:79-82.
Shafi, S., Dar, O., Khan, M., Khan, M., Azhar, E. I., McCloskey, B., Zumla, A., & Petersen, E. (2016). The annual Hajj pilgrimage-minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 47, 79-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.06.013
Shafi S, et al. The Annual Hajj Pilgrimage-minimizing the Risk of Ill Health in Pilgrims From Europe and Opportunity for Driving the Best Prevention and Health Promotion Guidelines. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;47:79-82. PubMed PMID: 27343984.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The annual Hajj pilgrimage-minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines. AU - Shafi,Shuja, AU - Dar,Osman, AU - Khan,Mishal, AU - Khan,Minal, AU - Azhar,Esam I, AU - McCloskey,Brian, AU - Zumla,Alimuddin, AU - Petersen,Eskild, Y1 - 2016/06/22/ PY - 2016/06/08/received PY - 2016/06/08/accepted PY - 2016/6/26/entrez PY - 2016/6/28/pubmed PY - 2017/2/7/medline KW - Hajj KW - Mass agthering KW - prevention KW - public health SP - 79 EP - 82 JF - International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases JO - Int J Infect Dis VL - 47 N2 - Mass gatherings at religious events can pose major public health challenges, particularly the transmission of infectious diseases. Every year the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosts the Hajj pilgrimage, the largest gathering held on an annual basis where over 2 million people come to KSA from over 180 countries. Living together in crowded conditions exposes the pilgrims and the local population to a range infectious diseases. Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract bacterial and viral infections can spread rapidly and affect attendees of mass gatherings. Lethal infectious disease outbreaks were common during Hajj in the 19th and 20th centuries although they have now been controlled to a great extent by the huge investments made by the KSA into public health prevention and surveillance programs. The KSA provides regular updated Hajj travel advice and health regulations through international public health agencies such as the WHO, Public Health England, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Hajj travel agencies. During the Hajj, an additional 25 000 health workers are deployed; there are eight hospitals in Makkah and Mina complete with state-of-the-art surgical wards and intensive care units made specifically available for pilgrims. All medical facilities offer high quality of care, and services are offered free to Hajj pilgrims to ensure the risks of ill health to all pilgrims and KSA residents are minimal. A summary of the key health issues that arise in pilgrims from Europe during Hajj and of the KSA Hajj guidelines, together with other factors that may play a role in reducing the risks to pilgrims and to wider global health security, is provided herein. SN - 1878-3511 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27343984/The_annual_Hajj_pilgrimage_minimizing_the_risk_of_ill_health_in_pilgrims_from_Europe_and_opportunity_for_driving_the_best_prevention_and_health_promotion_guidelines_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201-9712(16)31097-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -