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Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;Applied Science and Performance Institute, Tampa, Florida;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama; and.School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama;Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Hospitality Management, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama; and.Applied Science and Performance Institute, Tampa, Florida;School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, Alabama; and mdr0024@auburn.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27357802

Citation

Holland, Angelia Maleah, et al. "Effects of a Ketogenic Diet On Adipose Tissue, Liver, and Serum Biomarkers in Sedentary Rats and Rats That Exercised Via Resisted Voluntary Wheel Running." American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 311, no. 2, 2016, pp. R337-51.
Holland AM, Kephart WC, Mumford PW, et al. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;311(2):R337-51.
Holland, A. M., Kephart, W. C., Mumford, P. W., Mobley, C. B., Lowery, R. P., Shake, J. J., ... Roberts, M. D. (2016). Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311(2), pp. R337-51. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00156.2016.
Holland AM, et al. Effects of a Ketogenic Diet On Adipose Tissue, Liver, and Serum Biomarkers in Sedentary Rats and Rats That Exercised Via Resisted Voluntary Wheel Running. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 08 1;311(2):R337-51. PubMed PMID: 27357802.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running. AU - Holland,Angelia Maleah, AU - Kephart,Wesley C, AU - Mumford,Petey W, AU - Mobley,Christopher Brooks, AU - Lowery,Ryan P, AU - Shake,Joshua J, AU - Patel,Romil K, AU - Healy,James C, AU - McCullough,Danielle J, AU - Kluess,Heidi A, AU - Huggins,Kevin W, AU - Kavazis,Andreas N, AU - Wilson,Jacob M, AU - Roberts,Michael D, Y1 - 2016/06/29/ PY - 2016/04/18/received PY - 2016/06/27/accepted PY - 2016/7/1/entrez PY - 2016/7/1/pubmed PY - 2017/6/27/medline KW - adipose tissue KW - exercise KW - insulin KW - ketogenic diet KW - liver SP - R337 EP - 51 JF - American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology JO - Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. VL - 311 IS - 2 N2 - We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. SN - 1522-1490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27357802/Effects_of_a_ketogenic_diet_on_adipose_tissue_liver_and_serum_biomarkers_in_sedentary_rats_and_rats_that_exercised_via_resisted_voluntary_wheel_running_ L2 - http://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpregu.00156.2016?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -