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Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One 2016; 11(7):e0158765Plos

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI) CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7-15·1%), and stages 3-5 was 10·6%(9·2-12·2%). Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30): 3·5% (2·8-4·2%); Stage-2 (eGFR 60-89+ACR>30): 3·9% (2·7-5·3%); Stage-3 (eGFR 30-59): 7·6% (6·4-8·9%); Stage-4 = (eGFR 29-15): 0·4% (0·3-0·5%); and Stage-5 (eGFR<15): 0·1% (0·1-0·1%). CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27383068

Citation

Hill, Nathan R., et al. "Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 7, 2016, pp. e0158765.
Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, et al. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(7):e0158765.
Hill, N. R., Fatoba, S. T., Oke, J. L., Hirst, J. A., O'Callaghan, C. A., Lasserson, D. S., & Hobbs, F. D. (2016). Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS One, 11(7), pp. e0158765. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158765.
Hill NR, et al. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(7):e0158765. PubMed PMID: 27383068.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AU - Hill,Nathan R, AU - Fatoba,Samuel T, AU - Oke,Jason L, AU - Hirst,Jennifer A, AU - O'Callaghan,Christopher A, AU - Lasserson,Daniel S, AU - Hobbs,F D Richard, Y1 - 2016/07/06/ PY - 2015/11/19/received PY - 2016/06/21/accepted PY - 2016/7/8/entrez PY - 2016/7/8/pubmed PY - 2017/8/2/medline SP - e0158765 EP - e0158765 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 11 IS - 7 N2 - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI) CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7-15·1%), and stages 3-5 was 10·6%(9·2-12·2%). Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30): 3·5% (2·8-4·2%); Stage-2 (eGFR 60-89+ACR>30): 3·9% (2·7-5·3%); Stage-3 (eGFR 30-59): 7·6% (6·4-8·9%); Stage-4 = (eGFR 29-15): 0·4% (0·3-0·5%); and Stage-5 (eGFR<15): 0·1% (0·1-0·1%). CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27383068/full_citation L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158765 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -