Phylogenetic analysis of human rhinoviruses collected over four successive years in Sydney, Australia.Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2016 11; 10(6):493-503.IO
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) cause a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild influenza-like illness (ILI) to severe respiratory infection. Molecular epidemiological data are limited for HRV circulating in the Southern Hemisphere.
To identify the species and genotypes of HRV from clinical samples collected in Sydney, Australia, from 2006 to 2009.
Combined nose and throat swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from individuals with ILI were tested for HRV using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequencing data of 5'UTR and VP4/VP2 coding regions on RT-PCR-positive specimens were analysed.
Human rhinoviruses were detected by real-time PCR in 20.9% (116/555) of samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR and VP4/VP2 on HRV-positive samples was concordant in the grouping of HRV A and B species but not HRV C species. Eighty per cent (16/20) of sequences that grouped as HRV C in the VP4/VP2 tree clustered as HRV A, alongside some previously described C strains as subspecies C/A. Discordant branching was seen within HRV A group: two sequences clustering as A in the VP4/VP2 tree branched within the C/A subspecies in the 5'UTR tree, and one sequence showed identity to different HRV A strains in the two genes. The prevalence of HRV C and C/A species was greater in paediatric compared to adult patients (47.9% vs 25.5%, P = .032).
Human rhinoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infections, and HRV C is present in the Southern Hemisphere. Sequencing of multiple HRV regions may be necessary to determine exact phylogenetic relationships.