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Eugenics ideals, racial hygiene, and the emigration process of German-American neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965).
J Hist Neurosci. 2016 Jul-Sep; 25(3):253-74.JH

Abstract

Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs. Kallmann followed his Dr. Med. degree (1919) with training periods at the Charité Medical School in Berlin under psychiatrist Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948). Subsequently, he collaborated with Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952), investigating sibling inheritance of schizophrenia and becoming a protagonist of genetic research on psychiatric conditions. In 1936, Kallmann was forced to immigrate to the USA where he published The Genetics of Schizophrenia (1938), based on data he had gathered from the district pathological institutes of Berlin's public health department. Kallmann resumed his role as an international player in biological psychiatry and genetics, becoming president (1952) of the American Society of Human Genetics and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute in 1955. While his work was well received by geneticists, the idea of genetic differences barely took hold in American psychiatry, largely because of émigré psychoanalysts who dominated American clinical psychiatry until the 1960s and established a philosophical direction in which genetics played no significant role, being regarded as dangerous in light of Nazi medical atrocities. After all, medical scientists in Nazi Germany had been among the social protagonists of racial hygiene which, under the aegis of Nazi philosophies, replaced medical genetics as the basis for the ideals and application of eugenics.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Doctoral School of History , Central European University , Budapest , Hungary.b Departments of Community Health Sciences and History , The University of Calgary , Calgary , Alberta , Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Biography
Historical Article
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27388255

Citation

Pow, Stephen, and Frank W. Stahnisch. "Eugenics Ideals, Racial Hygiene, and the Emigration Process of German-American Neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965)." Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, vol. 25, no. 3, 2016, pp. 253-74.
Pow S, Stahnisch FW. Eugenics ideals, racial hygiene, and the emigration process of German-American neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965). J Hist Neurosci. 2016;25(3):253-74.
Pow, S., & Stahnisch, F. W. (2016). Eugenics ideals, racial hygiene, and the emigration process of German-American neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965). Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 25(3), 253-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/0964704X.2016.1187486
Pow S, Stahnisch FW. Eugenics Ideals, Racial Hygiene, and the Emigration Process of German-American Neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965). J Hist Neurosci. 2016 Jul-Sep;25(3):253-74. PubMed PMID: 27388255.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Eugenics ideals, racial hygiene, and the emigration process of German-American neurogeneticist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965). AU - Pow,Stephen, AU - Stahnisch,Frank W, PY - 2016/7/9/entrez PY - 2016/7/9/pubmed PY - 2017/3/10/medline KW - Cultural adaptation KW - Europe KW - Franz Josef Kallmann (1897–1965) KW - North America KW - eugenics KW - forced migration KW - racial anthropology KW - social contexts KW - transatlantic transfers KW - twentieth-century neuroscience KW - émigré neurogeneticists SP - 253 EP - 74 JF - Journal of the history of the neurosciences JO - J Hist Neurosci VL - 25 IS - 3 N2 - Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs. Kallmann followed his Dr. Med. degree (1919) with training periods at the Charité Medical School in Berlin under psychiatrist Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948). Subsequently, he collaborated with Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952), investigating sibling inheritance of schizophrenia and becoming a protagonist of genetic research on psychiatric conditions. In 1936, Kallmann was forced to immigrate to the USA where he published The Genetics of Schizophrenia (1938), based on data he had gathered from the district pathological institutes of Berlin's public health department. Kallmann resumed his role as an international player in biological psychiatry and genetics, becoming president (1952) of the American Society of Human Genetics and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute in 1955. While his work was well received by geneticists, the idea of genetic differences barely took hold in American psychiatry, largely because of émigré psychoanalysts who dominated American clinical psychiatry until the 1960s and established a philosophical direction in which genetics played no significant role, being regarded as dangerous in light of Nazi medical atrocities. After all, medical scientists in Nazi Germany had been among the social protagonists of racial hygiene which, under the aegis of Nazi philosophies, replaced medical genetics as the basis for the ideals and application of eugenics. SN - 1744-5213 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27388255/Eugenics_ideals_racial_hygiene_and_the_emigration_process_of_German_American_neurogeneticist_Franz_Josef_Kallmann__1897_1965__ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0964704X.2016.1187486 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -