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Perspectives on Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India.
Arch Sex Behav. 2018 01; 47(1):235-244.AS

Abstract

Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk for HIV infection. Culturally specific sexual identities, encompassing sexual roles, behavior, and appearance, may shape MSM's experiences of stigmatization and discrimination, and affect their vulnerability to HIV. This multi-site qualitative study (n = 363) encompassing 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) across 15 sites in India investigated sexual identity formation, identity practices, and transitions and their implications for HIV prevention. IDIs and FGDs were transcribed, translated, and underwent thematic analysis. Our findings document heterogeneous sexual identity formation, with MSM who have more gender nonconforming behaviors or appearance reporting greater family- and community-level disapproval, harassment, violence, and exclusion. Concealing feminine aspects of sexual identities was important in daily life, especially for married MSM. Some participants negotiated their identity practices in accordance with socioeconomic and cultural pressures, including taking on identity characteristics to suit consumer demand in sex work and on extended periods of joining communities of hijras (sometimes called TG or transgender women). Participants also reported that some MSM transition toward more feminine and hijra or transgender women identities, motivated by intersecting desires for feminine gender expression and by social exclusion and economic marginalization. Future studies should collect information on gender nonconformity stigma, and any changes in sexual identity practices or plans for transitions to other identities over time, in relation to HIV risk behaviors and outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E6648, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. ctomori1@jhu.edu.YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India.Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E6648, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA. Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E6648, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E6648, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27393039

Citation

Tomori, Cecilia, et al. "Perspectives On Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India." Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 47, no. 1, 2018, pp. 235-244.
Tomori C, Srikrishnan AK, Ridgeway K, et al. Perspectives on Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India. Arch Sex Behav. 2018;47(1):235-244.
Tomori, C., Srikrishnan, A. K., Ridgeway, K., Solomon, S. S., Mehta, S. H., Solomon, S., & Celentano, D. D. (2018). Perspectives on Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(1), 235-244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0775-6
Tomori C, et al. Perspectives On Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India. Arch Sex Behav. 2018;47(1):235-244. PubMed PMID: 27393039.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Perspectives on Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India. AU - Tomori,Cecilia, AU - Srikrishnan,Aylur K, AU - Ridgeway,Kathleen, AU - Solomon,Sunil S, AU - Mehta,Shruti H, AU - Solomon,Suniti, AU - Celentano,David D, Y1 - 2016/07/08/ PY - 2015/07/08/received PY - 2016/05/17/accepted PY - 2016/04/08/revised PY - 2016/7/10/pubmed PY - 2019/9/7/medline PY - 2016/7/10/entrez KW - Gender nonconformity KW - HIV prevention KW - India KW - Men who have sex with men KW - Sexual identities KW - Stigma SP - 235 EP - 244 JF - Archives of sexual behavior JO - Arch Sex Behav VL - 47 IS - 1 N2 - Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk for HIV infection. Culturally specific sexual identities, encompassing sexual roles, behavior, and appearance, may shape MSM's experiences of stigmatization and discrimination, and affect their vulnerability to HIV. This multi-site qualitative study (n = 363) encompassing 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) across 15 sites in India investigated sexual identity formation, identity practices, and transitions and their implications for HIV prevention. IDIs and FGDs were transcribed, translated, and underwent thematic analysis. Our findings document heterogeneous sexual identity formation, with MSM who have more gender nonconforming behaviors or appearance reporting greater family- and community-level disapproval, harassment, violence, and exclusion. Concealing feminine aspects of sexual identities was important in daily life, especially for married MSM. Some participants negotiated their identity practices in accordance with socioeconomic and cultural pressures, including taking on identity characteristics to suit consumer demand in sex work and on extended periods of joining communities of hijras (sometimes called TG or transgender women). Participants also reported that some MSM transition toward more feminine and hijra or transgender women identities, motivated by intersecting desires for feminine gender expression and by social exclusion and economic marginalization. Future studies should collect information on gender nonconformity stigma, and any changes in sexual identity practices or plans for transitions to other identities over time, in relation to HIV risk behaviors and outcomes. SN - 1573-2800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27393039/Perspectives_on_Sexual_Identity_Formation_Identity_Practices_and_Identity_Transitions_Among_Men_Who_Have_Sex_With_Men_in_India_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0775-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -