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Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science.

Abstract

High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently consume. This study used state-of-the-art evidence mapping approaches to characterize the full body of literature on LDL-C and iTFA at low intake levels. A total of 32 independent clinical trials that included at least one intervention or control group with iTFA at ≤3%en were found. Findings indicated that a wide range of oils and interventions were used, limiting the ability to determine an isolated effect of iTFA intake. Few data points were found for iTFA at <3%en, with the majority of low-level exposures actually representing control group interventions containing non-partially hydrogenated (PHO) oils. Further, it appears that few dose-response data points are available to assess the relationship of low levels of iTFA, particularly from PHO exposure, and LDL-C. Therefore, limited evidence is available to determine the effect of iTFA at current consumption levels on CHD risk.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA. Electronic address: deann.liska@mxns.com.

    ,

    Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA.

    ,

    D & V Systematic Evidence Review Consulting, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.

    ,

    ILSI North America (Formerly), The Sugar Association (Presently), Washington, DC, 20005, USA.

    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, USA.

    Source

    MeSH

    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cholesterol
    Humans
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Risk Factors
    Trans Fatty Acids
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27394654

    Citation

    Liska, DeAnn J., et al. "Trans Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Levels: an Evidence Map of the Available Science." Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, vol. 98, no. Pt B, 2016, pp. 269-281.
    Liska DJ, Cook CM, Wang DD, et al. Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;98(Pt B):269-281.
    Liska, D. J., Cook, C. M., Wang, D. D., Gaine, P. C., & Baer, D. J. (2016). Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science. Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 98(Pt B), pp. 269-281. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2016.07.002.
    Liska DJ, et al. Trans Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Levels: an Evidence Map of the Available Science. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;98(Pt B):269-281. PubMed PMID: 27394654.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Trans fatty acids and cholesterol levels: An evidence map of the available science. AU - Liska,DeAnn J, AU - Cook,Chad M, AU - Wang,Ding Ding, AU - Gaine,P Courtney, AU - Baer,David J, Y1 - 2016/07/07/ PY - 2016/01/18/received PY - 2016/07/01/revised PY - 2016/07/04/accepted PY - 2016/10/30/pubmed PY - 2017/3/8/medline PY - 2016/7/11/entrez KW - Cardiovascular disease KW - Cholesterol KW - Margarine KW - Trans fats SP - 269 EP - 281 JF - Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association JO - Food Chem. Toxicol. VL - 98 IS - Pt B N2 - High intakes of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increase circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Published data on iTFA and LDL-C, however, represent higher intake levels than the U.S. population currently consume. This study used state-of-the-art evidence mapping approaches to characterize the full body of literature on LDL-C and iTFA at low intake levels. A total of 32 independent clinical trials that included at least one intervention or control group with iTFA at ≤3%en were found. Findings indicated that a wide range of oils and interventions were used, limiting the ability to determine an isolated effect of iTFA intake. Few data points were found for iTFA at <3%en, with the majority of low-level exposures actually representing control group interventions containing non-partially hydrogenated (PHO) oils. Further, it appears that few dose-response data points are available to assess the relationship of low levels of iTFA, particularly from PHO exposure, and LDL-C. Therefore, limited evidence is available to determine the effect of iTFA at current consumption levels on CHD risk. SN - 1873-6351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27394654/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-6915(16)30222-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -