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Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Micronutrients are essential for brain development with deficiencies in specific nutrients linked to impaired cognitive function. Interventions are shown to be beneficial to children's mental development, particularly in subjects who were micronutrient-deficient at baseline but results on healthy subjects remain inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of micronutrient inventions on different cognitive domains. Studies conducted in both developing and developed countries, and trials that investigate the effect of both single and multiple micronutrient intervention were reviewed.

METHODS

Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL Plus and Academic Search database were undertaken to identify trials published after year 2000. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the effect of micronutrients on cognitive performance or academic performance among children aged 4-18 years were included.

RESULTS

19 trials were identified from 18 articles. The major cognitive outcomes assessed included fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, long-term memory, cognitive processing speed, attention and concentration, and school performance. Eight of ten trials assessing fluid intelligence reported significant positive effects of micronutrient supplementation among micronutrient-deficient children, especially those who were iron-deficient or iodine-deficient at baseline. The effects of micronutrient interventions on other domains were inconsistent.

CONCLUSION

Improvement in fluid intelligence among micronutrient-deficient children was consistently reported. Further research is needed to provide more definite evidence on the beneficial effects of micronutrient inventions on other cognitive domains and the effects in healthy subjects.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Public Health and Nutrition, University of Canberra, Australia. Electronic address: longfunglam@gmail.com.

    School of Public Health and Nutrition, University of Canberra, Australia. Electronic address: Tanya.Lawlis@canberra.edu.au.

    Source

    MeSH

    Academic Performance
    Adolescent
    Adolescent Development
    Child
    Child Development
    Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Child, Preschool
    Cognition Disorders
    Deficiency Diseases
    Dietary Supplements
    Global Health
    Humans
    Intelligence
    Memory Disorders
    Micronutrients
    Neurogenesis
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Reproducibility of Results

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27395329

    Citation

    Lam, Long Fung, and Tanya R. Lawlis. "Feeding the Brain - the Effects of Micronutrient Interventions On Cognitive Performance Among School-aged Children: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials." Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 36, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1007-1014.
    Lam LF, Lawlis TR. Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(4):1007-1014.
    Lam, L. F., & Lawlis, T. R. (2017). Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 36(4), pp. 1007-1014. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.013.
    Lam LF, Lawlis TR. Feeding the Brain - the Effects of Micronutrient Interventions On Cognitive Performance Among School-aged Children: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(4):1007-1014. PubMed PMID: 27395329.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. AU - Lam,Long Fung, AU - Lawlis,Tanya R, Y1 - 2016/06/23/ PY - 2016/02/02/received PY - 2016/06/01/revised PY - 2016/06/19/accepted PY - 2016/7/11/pubmed PY - 2018/3/27/medline PY - 2016/7/11/entrez KW - Academic performance KW - Adolescents KW - Children KW - Cognitive KW - Memory KW - Micronutrients SP - 1007 EP - 1014 JF - Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) JO - Clin Nutr VL - 36 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Micronutrients are essential for brain development with deficiencies in specific nutrients linked to impaired cognitive function. Interventions are shown to be beneficial to children's mental development, particularly in subjects who were micronutrient-deficient at baseline but results on healthy subjects remain inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of micronutrient inventions on different cognitive domains. Studies conducted in both developing and developed countries, and trials that investigate the effect of both single and multiple micronutrient intervention were reviewed. METHODS: Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL Plus and Academic Search database were undertaken to identify trials published after year 2000. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the effect of micronutrients on cognitive performance or academic performance among children aged 4-18 years were included. RESULTS: 19 trials were identified from 18 articles. The major cognitive outcomes assessed included fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, long-term memory, cognitive processing speed, attention and concentration, and school performance. Eight of ten trials assessing fluid intelligence reported significant positive effects of micronutrient supplementation among micronutrient-deficient children, especially those who were iron-deficient or iodine-deficient at baseline. The effects of micronutrient interventions on other domains were inconsistent. CONCLUSION: Improvement in fluid intelligence among micronutrient-deficient children was consistently reported. Further research is needed to provide more definite evidence on the beneficial effects of micronutrient inventions on other cognitive domains and the effects in healthy subjects. SN - 1532-1983 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27395329/Feeding_the_brain___The_effects_of_micronutrient_interventions_on_cognitive_performance_among_school_aged_children:_A_systematic_review_of_randomized_controlled_trials_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0261-5614(16)30146-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -