Electrocatalytic oxidation of phenol from wastewater using Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4 electrode: chemical reaction pathway study.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Oct; 23(19):19735-43.ES
In this study, a titanium plate was impregnated with SnO2 and Sb (Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4) for the electrocatalytic removal of phenol from wastewater, and the chemical degradation pathway was presented. The effects of various parameters such as pH, current density, supporting electrolyte, and initial phenol concentration were studied. At optimum conditions, it was found that phenol was quickly oxidized into benzoquinone because of the formation of various strong radicals during electrolysis by the Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4 anode from 100 to <1 mg/L over 1 h. The results of GC/MS analysis showed the presence of some esters of organic acid such as oxalic acid and formic acid. HPLC analysis showed only trace amounts of benzoquinone remaining in the solution. The efficiency of TOC removal at the Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4 anode surface showed a degradation rate of 49 % over 2 h. Results showed that the molecular oxygen potential at the electrode was 1.7 V. The phenol removal mechanism at the surface of the Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4 anode was influenced by the pH. Under acidic conditions, the mechanism of electron transfer occurred directly, whereas under alkaline conditions, the mechanism can be indirect. This research shows that the proposed electrolyte can significantly influence the efficiency of phenol removal. It can be concluded that the treatment using an appropriate Ti/SnO2-Sb2O4 electrode surface can result in the rapid oxidation of organic pollutants.