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Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA.
Clin Nutr 2017; 36(3):672-679CN

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

The effect of lycopene-containing foods in prostate cancer development remains undetermined. We tested whether a lycopene-rich tomato intervention could reduce the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients.

METHODS

Prior to their curative treatment, 79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks.

RESULTS

The main analysis, which included patients in all risk categories, did not reveal differences in changes of PSA-values between the intervention and control groups. Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS

Three week nutritional interventions with tomato-products alone or in combination with selenium and n-3 fatty acids lower PSA in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Our observation suggests that the effect may depend on both aggressiveness of the disease and the blood levels of lycopene, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: ingvild.paur@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: WLL@ous-hf.no.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: s.k.bohn@medisin.uio.no.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: erik@hulander.se.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: wilkle@so-hf.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: LVLAT@ous-hf.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Department of Urology, Akershus University Hospital, 1748 Lørenskog, Norway. Electronic address: axcrona@online.no.Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: nilbol@ous-hf.no.Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: BJC@ous-hf.no.Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: petter.laake@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: k.a.tasken@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: aud.svindland@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: lamaer@ous-hf.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: BJORB@ous-hf.no.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: m.h.carlsen@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: s.d.fossa@medisin.uio.no.Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: sigbjorn.smeland@medisin.uio.no.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: a.s.karlsen@medisin.uio.no.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway; Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: rune.blomhoff@medisin.uio.no.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27406859

Citation

Paur, Ingvild, et al. "Tomato-based Randomized Controlled Trial in Prostate Cancer Patients: Effect On PSA." Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 36, no. 3, 2017, pp. 672-679.
Paur I, Lilleby W, Bøhn SK, et al. Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(3):672-679.
Paur, I., Lilleby, W., Bøhn, S. K., Hulander, E., Klein, W., Vlatkovic, L., ... Blomhoff, R. (2017). Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 36(3), pp. 672-679. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.014.
Paur I, et al. Tomato-based Randomized Controlled Trial in Prostate Cancer Patients: Effect On PSA. Clin Nutr. 2017;36(3):672-679. PubMed PMID: 27406859.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA. AU - Paur,Ingvild, AU - Lilleby,Wolfgang, AU - Bøhn,Siv Kjølsrud, AU - Hulander,Erik, AU - Klein,Willibrord, AU - Vlatkovic,Ljiljana, AU - Axcrona,Karol, AU - Bolstad,Nils, AU - Bjøro,Trine, AU - Laake,Petter, AU - Taskén,Kristin A, AU - Svindland,Aud, AU - Eri,Lars Magne, AU - Brennhovd,Bjørn, AU - Carlsen,Monica H, AU - Fosså,Sophie D, AU - Smeland,Sigbjørn S, AU - Karlsen,Anette S, AU - Blomhoff,Rune, Y1 - 2016/06/30/ PY - 2015/11/26/received PY - 2016/01/29/revised PY - 2016/06/18/accepted PY - 2016/7/14/pubmed PY - 2018/3/24/medline PY - 2016/7/14/entrez KW - Diet KW - Lycopene KW - Prostate cancer KW - Prostate specific antigen KW - Selenium KW - Tomato SP - 672 EP - 679 JF - Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) JO - Clin Nutr VL - 36 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of lycopene-containing foods in prostate cancer development remains undetermined. We tested whether a lycopene-rich tomato intervention could reduce the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients. METHODS: Prior to their curative treatment, 79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks. RESULTS: The main analysis, which included patients in all risk categories, did not reveal differences in changes of PSA-values between the intervention and control groups. Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Three week nutritional interventions with tomato-products alone or in combination with selenium and n-3 fatty acids lower PSA in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Our observation suggests that the effect may depend on both aggressiveness of the disease and the blood levels of lycopene, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. SN - 1532-1983 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27406859/Tomato_based_randomized_controlled_trial_in_prostate_cancer_patients:_Effect_on_PSA_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0261-5614(16)30147-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -