MicroRNAs in glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases.J Hum Genet. 2017 Jan; 62(1):105-112.JH
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of short, non-coding RNAs, which have important role in post-transcriptional regulation of genes expression by base-pairing with their target messenger RNA (mRNA). In recent years, miRNAs biogenesis, gene silencing mechanism and implication in various diseases have been thoroughly investigated. Many scientific findings indicate the altered expression of specific miRNA in the brains of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington disease. The progressive optic nerve neuropathy associated with changed miRNA profile was also observed during glaucoma development. This suggests that the miRNAs may have a crucial role in these disorders, contributing to the neuronal cell death. A better understanding of molecular mechanism of these disorders will open a new potential way of ND treatment. In this review, the miRNAs role in particular neurodegenerative disorders and their possible application in medicine was discussed.