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Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Abstract

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these nutrients in the brain, the possible altered levels of these nutrients in patients with ADHD, possible reasons for a differential level in children with ADHD, and safety and effect of supplementation. With this knowledge, clinicians may choose in certain patients at high risk of deficiency, to screen for possible deficiencies of magnesium, vitamin D, zinc, and iron by checking RBC-magnesium, 25-OH vitamin D, serum/plasma zinc, and ferritin. Although children with ADHD may be more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and iron, it cannot be stated that these lower levels caused ADHD. However, supplementing areas of deficiency may be a safe and justified intervention.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Arizona, 2800 E. Ajo Way Suite 300, Tucson, AZ 85713, USA. avillagomez@psychiatry.arizona.edu.

    Mercy Children's Hospital, 621 S. New Ballas Road, Suite 693A, Saint Louis, MO 63141, USA. ujjwal.ramtekkar@mercy.net.

    Source

    Children (Basel, Switzerland) 1:3 2014 Sep 29 pg 261-79

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27417479

    Citation

    Villagomez, Amelia, and Ujjwal Ramtekkar. "Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder." Children (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 1, no. 3, 2014, pp. 261-79.
    Villagomez A, Ramtekkar U. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Children (Basel). 2014;1(3):261-79.
    Villagomez, A., & Ramtekkar, U. (2014). Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 1(3), pp. 261-79. doi:10.3390/children1030261.
    Villagomez A, Ramtekkar U. Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Children (Basel). 2014 Sep 29;1(3):261-79. PubMed PMID: 27417479.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Zinc Deficiencies in Children Presenting with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. AU - Villagomez,Amelia, AU - Ramtekkar,Ujjwal, Y1 - 2014/09/29/ PY - 2014/05/31/received PY - 2014/08/12/revised PY - 2014/08/21/accepted PY - 2016/7/16/entrez PY - 2014/1/1/pubmed PY - 2014/1/1/medline KW - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder KW - ferritin KW - iron KW - magnesium KW - vitamin D KW - zinc SP - 261 EP - 79 JF - Children (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Children (Basel) VL - 1 IS - 3 N2 - Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder increasing in prevalence. Although there is limited evidence to support treating ADHD with mineral/vitamin supplements, research does exist showing that patients with ADHD may have reduced levels of vitamin D, zinc, ferritin, and magnesium. These nutrients have important roles in neurologic function, including involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of each of these nutrients in the brain, the possible altered levels of these nutrients in patients with ADHD, possible reasons for a differential level in children with ADHD, and safety and effect of supplementation. With this knowledge, clinicians may choose in certain patients at high risk of deficiency, to screen for possible deficiencies of magnesium, vitamin D, zinc, and iron by checking RBC-magnesium, 25-OH vitamin D, serum/plasma zinc, and ferritin. Although children with ADHD may be more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, and iron, it cannot be stated that these lower levels caused ADHD. However, supplementing areas of deficiency may be a safe and justified intervention. SN - 2227-9067 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27417479/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=children1030261 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -