Ergonomic Risk Factors and Their Association With Lower Back and Neck Pain Among Pharmaceutical Employees in Iran.Workplace Health Saf. 2016 Dec; 64(12):586-595.WH
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the ergonomic risk factors for low back pain (LBP) and neck pain in an industry in which only light tasks are performed. These common disorders can be significant work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This study included 396 employees who worked in packaging units of pharmaceutical companies. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used to generate data. This study showed an association between LBP, RULA scores, and workers' education. For neck pain, an association was found with age, gender, and subjective questions about working posture (mostly sitting/standing or alternating between the two). Absence from work more than 3 days, which could have been associated with pain, was significantly associated with both disorders.