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Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.
Adv Nutr. 2016 07; 7(4):690-705.AN

Abstract

Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Genesis Prevention Centre, University Hospital South Manchester National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom michelle.harvie@manchester.ac.uk.Genesis Prevention Centre, University Hospital South Manchester National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27422504

Citation

Harvie, Michelle N., and Tony Howell. "Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? a Summary of Evidence." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 7, no. 4, 2016, pp. 690-705.
Harvie MN, Howell T. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(4):690-705.
Harvie, M. N., & Howell, T. (2016). Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 7(4), 690-705. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011767
Harvie MN, Howell T. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? a Summary of Evidence. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(4):690-705. PubMed PMID: 27422504.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence. AU - Harvie,Michelle N, AU - Howell,Tony, Y1 - 2016/07/15/ PY - 2016/7/17/entrez PY - 2016/7/17/pubmed PY - 2017/11/3/medline KW - cancer KW - intermittent energy restriction KW - intermittent fasting KW - normal weight KW - obese SP - 690 EP - 705 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 7 IS - 4 N2 - Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27422504/Could_Intermittent_Energy_Restriction_and_Intermittent_Fasting_Reduce_Rates_of_Cancer_in_Obese_Overweight_and_Normal_Weight_Subjects_A_Summary_of_Evidence_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.115.011767 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -