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Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk.
J Pediatr. 2016 10; 177:140-143.JPed

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage.

STUDY DESIGN

Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality.

RESULTS

Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P < .001); bacterial counts decreased most rapidly in the refrigerated frozen group. The gram-negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P < .001). Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased significantly with time in storage (P < .001). Freezing for up to 9 months did not affect total protein, fat, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, or osmolality in either group.

CONCLUSIONS

Freezer storage of human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY.Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY.Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY; Lilling Family Neonatal Research Lab, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY; Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY.Lilling Family Neonatal Research Lab, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY.Animal & Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.Animal & Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY.Lilling Family Neonatal Research Lab, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY.Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY; Lilling Family Neonatal Research Lab, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY; Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY. Electronic address: schanler@northwell.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27423174

Citation

Ahrabi, Ali Faraghi, et al. "Effects of Extended Freezer Storage On the Integrity of Human Milk." The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 177, 2016, pp. 140-143.
Ahrabi AF, Handa D, Codipilly CN, et al. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk. J Pediatr. 2016;177:140-143.
Ahrabi, A. F., Handa, D., Codipilly, C. N., Shah, S., Williams, J. E., McGuire, M. A., Potak, D., Aharon, G. G., & Schanler, R. J. (2016). Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk. The Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 140-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.024
Ahrabi AF, et al. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage On the Integrity of Human Milk. J Pediatr. 2016;177:140-143. PubMed PMID: 27423174.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk. AU - Ahrabi,Ali Faraghi, AU - Handa,Deepali, AU - Codipilly,Champa N, AU - Shah,Syed, AU - Williams,Janet E, AU - McGuire,Mark A, AU - Potak,Debra, AU - Aharon,Grace Golda, AU - Schanler,Richard J, Y1 - 2016/07/14/ PY - 2016/02/04/received PY - 2016/05/13/revised PY - 2016/06/07/accepted PY - 2016/7/18/entrez PY - 2016/7/18/pubmed PY - 2017/5/10/medline KW - NICU KW - human milk KW - milk integrity KW - preterm infants KW - refrigeration of human milk KW - storage of human milk SP - 140 EP - 143 JF - The Journal of pediatrics JO - J. Pediatr. VL - 177 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality. RESULTS: Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P < .001); bacterial counts decreased most rapidly in the refrigerated frozen group. The gram-negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P < .001). Nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased significantly with time in storage (P < .001). Freezing for up to 9 months did not affect total protein, fat, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, or osmolality in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Freezer storage of human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk. SN - 1097-6833 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27423174/Effects_of_Extended_Freezer_Storage_on_the_Integrity_of_Human_Milk_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3476(16)30384-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -