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Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug 22; 190:387-95.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

"Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including Rosa damascene Mill, Cichorium intybus L., Cucumis sativus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rheum palmatum L., and Nardostachys jatamansi DC.. The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status.

RESULTS

Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity.

CONCLUSIONS

The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES was safe for organs in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, prescribing the traditionally-recommended dose of ZES can be probably used against the liver injuries induced by xenobiotics. Further studies in other models of liver injuries are recommended for finding the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of ZES.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: zarrinsarhady@yahoo.com.Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: fsharififar@kmu.ac.ir.Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutics Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: abpardakhty@kmu.ac.ir.Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616914111, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: mh.nematollahi@yahoo.com.Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: saeedehmokhtari@gmail.com.Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran; Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Afzalipour"s Hospital, Imam Highway, P.O. Box 7616913911, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: alimandegary@kmu.ac.ir.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27426508

Citation

Sarhadynejad, Zarrin, et al. "Pharmacological Safety Evaluation of a Traditional Herbal Medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and Assessment of Its Hepatoprotective Effects On Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 190, 2016, pp. 387-95.
Sarhadynejad Z, Sharififar F, Pardakhty A, et al. Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;190:387-95.
Sarhadynejad, Z., Sharififar, F., Pardakhty, A., Nematollahi, M. H., Sattaie-Mokhtari, S., & Mandegary, A. (2016). Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 190, 387-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.043
Sarhadynejad Z, et al. Pharmacological Safety Evaluation of a Traditional Herbal Medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and Assessment of Its Hepatoprotective Effects On Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug 22;190:387-95. PubMed PMID: 27426508.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. AU - Sarhadynejad,Zarrin, AU - Sharififar,Fariba, AU - Pardakhty,Abbas, AU - Nematollahi,Mohammad-Hadi, AU - Sattaie-Mokhtari,Saeedeh, AU - Mandegary,Ali, Y1 - 2016/07/15/ PY - 2015/12/27/received PY - 2016/06/07/revised PY - 2016/07/14/accepted PY - 2016/7/19/entrez PY - 2016/7/19/pubmed PY - 2017/4/19/medline KW - CCl(4)-induced liver damage KW - Emodin (PubChem CID: 3220) KW - Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370) KW - Hepatoprotective effect KW - Kaempferol (PubChem CID: 5280863) KW - Oxidative stress KW - Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343) KW - Rutin (PubChem CID: 5280805) KW - Traditional herbal medicine SP - 387 EP - 95 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 190 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: "Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including Rosa damascene Mill, Cichorium intybus L., Cucumis sativus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rheum palmatum L., and Nardostachys jatamansi DC.. The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status. RESULTS: Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES was safe for organs in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, prescribing the traditionally-recommended dose of ZES can be probably used against the liver injuries induced by xenobiotics. Further studies in other models of liver injuries are recommended for finding the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of ZES. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27426508/Pharmacological_safety_evaluation_of_a_traditional_herbal_medicine_"Zereshk_e_Saghir"_and_assessment_of_its_hepatoprotective_effects_on_carbon_tetrachloride_induced_hepatic_damage_in_rats_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(16)30466-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -