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Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

 After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved.

METHODS

 We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV.

RESULTS

 Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21%) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3%). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala.

CONCLUSIONS

 These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

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    Centro Regional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Tapachula.

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

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    Centro Regional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Tapachula.

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    Centro de Investigación sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca.

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

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    Centro Regional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Tapachula.

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    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza.

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    Centro Regional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Tapachula.

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

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    Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza.

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    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Escobedo, Mexico.

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

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    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

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    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

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    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity. Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Department of Pathology.

    Source

    The Journal of infectious diseases 214:9 2016 Nov 01 pg 1349-1356

    MeSH

    Aedes
    Americas
    Animals
    Culex
    Culicidae
    Disease Outbreaks
    Guatemala
    Insect Vectors
    Mexico
    Zika Virus
    Zika Virus Infection

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27436433

    Citation

    Guerbois, Mathilde, et al. "Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission By Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 214, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1349-1356.
    Guerbois M, Fernandez-Salas I, Azar SR, et al. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. J Infect Dis. 2016;214(9):1349-1356.
    Guerbois, M., Fernandez-Salas, I., Azar, S. R., Danis-Lozano, R., Alpuche-Aranda, C. M., Leal, G., ... Weaver, S. C. (2016). Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 214(9), pp. 1349-1356.
    Guerbois M, et al. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission By Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. J Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 1;214(9):1349-1356. PubMed PMID: 27436433.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. AU - Guerbois,Mathilde, AU - Fernandez-Salas,Ildefonso, AU - Azar,Sasha R, AU - Danis-Lozano,Rogelio, AU - Alpuche-Aranda,Celia M, AU - Leal,Grace, AU - Garcia-Malo,Iliana R, AU - Diaz-Gonzalez,Esteban E, AU - Casas-Martinez,Mauricio, AU - Rossi,Shannan L, AU - Del Río-Galván,Samanta L, AU - Sanchez-Casas,Rosa M, AU - Roundy,Christopher M, AU - Wood,Thomas G, AU - Widen,Steven G, AU - Vasilakis,Nikos, AU - Weaver,Scott C, Y1 - 2016/07/19/ PY - 2016/06/07/received PY - 2016/07/13/accepted PY - 2016/7/21/pubmed PY - 2017/6/6/medline PY - 2016/7/21/entrez KW - Zika KW - arbovirus KW - flavivirus KW - mosquito KW - transmission SP - 1349 EP - 1356 JF - The Journal of infectious diseases JO - J. Infect. Dis. VL - 214 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND:  After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved. METHODS:  We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV. RESULTS:  Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21%) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3%). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala. CONCLUSIONS:  These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America. SN - 1537-6613 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27436433/Outbreak_of_Zika_Virus_Infection_Chiapas_State_Mexico_2015_and_First_Confirmed_Transmission_by_Aedes_aegypti_Mosquitoes_in_the_Americas_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiw302 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -