Lipid dynamics in blended wheat and non-wheat flours breadmaking matrices: Impact on fresh and aged composite breads.Food Sci Technol Int. 2017 Jan; 23(1):24-35.FS
The use of pseudocereals, legumes and ancient grains for breadmaking applications is receiving particular attention since they involve nutrient dense grains with proven health-promoting attributes. Dilution up to 45% of the basic wheat flour matrix by accumulative ternary addition of teff, green pea and buckwheat flours did significantly impact both the extractability and distribution of lipid subfractions in composite flours, doughs and breads, and induced differentiated dynamics in lipid binding along breadmaking. During mixing, a preferential covalent lipid binding to the inside part of the starch granules takes place at the expenses of both accessible free lipids and lipids initially bound non-covalently to the gluten/non-gluten proteins and to the outside part of the starch granules. During fermentation and later baking a preferential lipid binding to the gluten/non-gluten proteins and to the outside and inside starch granules takes place at the expenses of both a free lipid displacement and a bound lipid translocation to new protein and starch active sites. It can be noticed that the larger the accumulation of both protein- and starch-bound lipids over fermentation and baking, the higher physic-chemical and sensory profiles, and the slower starch hydrolysis, firming and retrogradation kinetics of composite breads were obtained.