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Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.
Nanotoxicology. 2016 11; 10(9):1373-84.N

Abstract

The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .b Nanotechnology Core Facility , and.b Nanotechnology Core Facility , and.a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .c Division of Biochemical Toxicology , National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration , Jefferson , AR , USA .b Nanotechnology Core Facility , and.a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology . d Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore , Pakistan , and.b Nanotechnology Core Facility , and.e Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration , Rockville , MD , USA.a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .b Nanotechnology Core Facility , and.a Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology .

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27441588

Citation

Guo, Xiaoqing, et al. "Size- and Coating-dependent Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Evaluated Using in Vitro Standard Assays." Nanotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1373-84.
Guo X, Li Y, Yan J, et al. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays. Nanotoxicology. 2016;10(9):1373-84.
Guo, X., Li, Y., Yan, J., Ingle, T., Jones, M. Y., Mei, N., Boudreau, M. D., Cunningham, C. K., Abbas, M., Paredes, A. M., Zhou, T., Moore, M. M., Howard, P. C., & Chen, T. (2016). Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays. Nanotoxicology, 10(9), 1373-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2016.1214764
Guo X, et al. Size- and Coating-dependent Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Evaluated Using in Vitro Standard Assays. Nanotoxicology. 2016;10(9):1373-84. PubMed PMID: 27441588.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays. AU - Guo,Xiaoqing, AU - Li,Yan, AU - Yan,Jian, AU - Ingle,Taylor, AU - Jones,Margie Yvonne, AU - Mei,Nan, AU - Boudreau,Mary D, AU - Cunningham,Candice K, AU - Abbas,Mazhar, AU - Paredes,Angel M, AU - Zhou,Tong, AU - Moore,Martha M, AU - Howard,Paul C, AU - Chen,Tao, Y1 - 2016/08/10/ PY - 2016/7/22/entrez PY - 2016/7/22/pubmed PY - 2017/6/16/medline KW - Ames test KW - genotoxicity KW - in vitro micronucleus assay KW - mouse lymphoma assay KW - silver nanoparticles SP - 1373 EP - 84 JF - Nanotoxicology JO - Nanotoxicology VL - 10 IS - 9 N2 - The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot. SN - 1743-5404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27441588/Size__and_coating_dependent_cytotoxicity_and_genotoxicity_of_silver_nanoparticles_evaluated_using_in_vitro_standard_assays_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17435390.2016.1214764 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -