Nutritional Deficiency in Patients with Heart Failure.Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22; 8(7)N
Heart failure (HF) is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Although evidence-based treatments have substantially improved outcomes, prognosis remains poor with high costs for health care systems. In patients with HF, poor dietary behaviors are associated with unsatisfactory quality of life and adverse outcome. The HF guidelines have not recommended a specific nutritional strategy. Despite the role of micronutrient deficiency, it has been extensively studied, and data about the efficacy of supplementation therapy in HF are not supported by large randomized trials and there is limited evidence regarding the outcomes. The aim of the present review is to analyze the state-of-the-art of nutritional deficiencies in HF, focusing on the physiological role and the prognostic impact of micronutrient supplementation.