[Influence of the concentrate of red wine polyphenols on glutamate neurotoxicity].Vopr Pitan. 2016; 85(2):55-60.VP
The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of the concentrate of red table wine Saperavi on the cultivated nerve cells exposed to glutamate. The selection of Saperavi as the source of phenolic compounds was not accidental: this type of grapes in the Krasnodar region has the highest content of them - up to 4-5 g/dm3 and more. Polyphenol concentrate was prepared by pre-distillation of ethanol using vacuum, evaporation of red table wine with a rotary vaporizer, with the subsequent lyophilic drying. By the methods of voltammetry and chemiluminescence an antioxidant activity, and a quantity of antioxidants in the concentrate have been determined. By HPLC it was established that a large group of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was present in the concentrate of polyphenols: procyanidins (total concentration up to 425 mg/dm3), quercetin (21.8-32.6 mg/dm3), gallic acid (124.2-164.7 mg/dm3), resveratrol (6.26-13.22 mg/dm3), catechins (1026 - 1480 mg/dm3). Effect of red wine Saperavi concentrate on glutamate cytotoxicity was studied in the neuron culture of the cerebellum of 7-9-day-old rats. It was shown that the presence of. antioxidants reduced the intensity of chemiluminescence in model systems that generate free radicals. It was established that quenching of chemiluminescence in the system <<citrate-phosphate-luminol>> composed 68.43%, and in the system of the yolk lipoproteins - 86.36%. The application of concentrate Saperavi significantly increased the survivability of neurons: at the doses 5, 10 and 30 mcg/ml the number of intact neurons was respectively 38.6; 41.5 and 37.1%. The dose 20 mcg/ml was the most effective - the proportion of live neurons comprised 47.4%. The obtained results can be explained by the high antioxidant activity of concentrate flavonoids, including high content of biologically active compounds - catechins, quercetin, rutin, resveratrol. Thus, the consumption of red wine in quantities that exclude harmful effects, can have a positive impact on human health and the brain in particular.