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The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 11; 26(11):1004-1010.NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects.

METHODS AND RESULTS

We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively.

CONCLUSION

The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution.

Authors+Show Affiliations

EPI-Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.EPI-Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.EPI-Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.EPI-Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.EPI-Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: acmatos@med.up.pt.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27461861

Citation

Santos, S, et al. "The Role of Prenatal Exposures On Body Fat Patterns at 7 Years: Intrauterine Programming or Birthweight Effects?" Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 26, no. 11, 2016, pp. 1004-1010.
Santos S, Severo M, Gaillard R, et al. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;26(11):1004-1010.
Santos, S., Severo, M., Gaillard, R., Santos, A. C., Barros, H., & Oliveira, A. (2016). The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects? Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 26(11), 1004-1010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2016.06.010
Santos S, et al. The Role of Prenatal Exposures On Body Fat Patterns at 7 Years: Intrauterine Programming or Birthweight Effects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;26(11):1004-1010. PubMed PMID: 27461861.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects? AU - Santos,S, AU - Severo,M, AU - Gaillard,R, AU - Santos,A C, AU - Barros,H, AU - Oliveira,A, Y1 - 2016/06/28/ PY - 2016/03/23/received PY - 2016/06/03/revised PY - 2016/06/21/accepted PY - 2016/10/26/pubmed PY - 2017/8/2/medline PY - 2016/7/28/entrez KW - Birth weight KW - Body fat KW - Children KW - Cohort studies KW - Fetal programming KW - Path analysis SP - 1004 EP - 1010 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 26 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. CONCLUSION: The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27461861/The_role_of_prenatal_exposures_on_body_fat_patterns_at_7_years:_Intrauterine_programming_or_birthweight_effects L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(16)30100-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -