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Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis.
Ther Drug Monit. 2016 10; 38(5):634-9.TD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results.

METHODS

Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL).

RESULTS

All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches.

CONCLUSIONS

Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

*Department of Surgical and Biomedical Science, Forensic Medicine, Forensic Science and Sports Medicine Section, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; and †Legal Medicine Section, Public Health Institute, Sacred Heart Catholic University, Rome, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27465974

Citation

Gambelunghe, Cristiana, et al. "Cannabis Use Surveillance By Sweat Analysis." Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 38, no. 5, 2016, pp. 634-9.
Gambelunghe C, Fucci N, Aroni K, et al. Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis. Ther Drug Monit. 2016;38(5):634-9.
Gambelunghe, C., Fucci, N., Aroni, K., Bacci, M., Marcelli, A., & Rossi, R. (2016). Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 38(5), 634-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000327
Gambelunghe C, et al. Cannabis Use Surveillance By Sweat Analysis. Ther Drug Monit. 2016;38(5):634-9. PubMed PMID: 27465974.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis. AU - Gambelunghe,Cristiana, AU - Fucci,Nadia, AU - Aroni,Kyriaki, AU - Bacci,Mauro, AU - Marcelli,Antonio, AU - Rossi,Riccardo, PY - 2016/7/29/entrez PY - 2016/7/29/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline SP - 634 EP - 9 JF - Therapeutic drug monitoring JO - Ther Drug Monit VL - 38 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. METHODS: Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL). RESULTS: All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches. CONCLUSIONS: Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids. SN - 1536-3694 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27465974/Cannabis_Use_Surveillance_by_Sweat_Analysis_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000327 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -