Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0160006.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins) that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins.

METHODS

We established a simplified procedure for extracting polyether toxins from Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. based on the ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM). Fractionated extracts from identified Pacific and Caribbean isolates were analysed using a functional bioassay that recorded intracellular calcium changes (Ca2+) in response to sample addition in SH-SY5Y cells. Maitotoxin directly elevated Ca2+i, while low levels of ciguatoxin-like toxins were detected using veratridine to enhance responses.

RESULTS

We identified significant maitotoxin production in 11 of 12 isolates analysed, with 6 of 12 producing at least two forms of maitotoxin. In contrast, only 2 Caribbean isolates produced detectable levels of ciguatoxin-like activity despite a detection limit of >30 pM. Significant strain-dependent differences in the levels and types of ciguatoxins and maitotoxins produced by the same Gambierdiscus spp. were also identified.

CONCLUSIONS

The ability to rapidly identify polyether toxins produced by Gambierdiscus spp. in culture has the potential to distinguish ciguatoxin-producing species prior to large-scale culture and in naturally occurring blooms of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. Our results have implications for the evaluation of ciguatera risk associated with Gambierdiscus and related species.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries & Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC, 28516, United States of America.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries & Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC, 28516, United States of America.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries & Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC, 28516, United States of America.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries & Habitat Research, 101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC, 28516, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27467390

Citation

Lewis, Richard J., et al. "Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins From Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay." PloS One, vol. 11, no. 7, 2016, pp. e0160006.
Lewis RJ, Inserra M, Vetter I, et al. Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0160006.
Lewis, R. J., Inserra, M., Vetter, I., Holland, W. C., Hardison, D. R., Tester, P. A., & Litaker, R. W. (2016). Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay. PloS One, 11(7), e0160006. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160006
Lewis RJ, et al. Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins From Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0160006. PubMed PMID: 27467390.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay. AU - Lewis,Richard J, AU - Inserra,Marco, AU - Vetter,Irina, AU - Holland,William C, AU - Hardison,D Ransom, AU - Tester,Patricia A, AU - Litaker,R Wayne, Y1 - 2016/07/28/ PY - 2016/02/16/received PY - 2016/07/12/accepted PY - 2016/7/29/entrez PY - 2016/7/29/pubmed PY - 2017/8/9/medline SP - e0160006 EP - e0160006 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 11 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins) that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins. METHODS: We established a simplified procedure for extracting polyether toxins from Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. based on the ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM). Fractionated extracts from identified Pacific and Caribbean isolates were analysed using a functional bioassay that recorded intracellular calcium changes (Ca2+) in response to sample addition in SH-SY5Y cells. Maitotoxin directly elevated Ca2+i, while low levels of ciguatoxin-like toxins were detected using veratridine to enhance responses. RESULTS: We identified significant maitotoxin production in 11 of 12 isolates analysed, with 6 of 12 producing at least two forms of maitotoxin. In contrast, only 2 Caribbean isolates produced detectable levels of ciguatoxin-like activity despite a detection limit of >30 pM. Significant strain-dependent differences in the levels and types of ciguatoxins and maitotoxins produced by the same Gambierdiscus spp. were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to rapidly identify polyether toxins produced by Gambierdiscus spp. in culture has the potential to distinguish ciguatoxin-producing species prior to large-scale culture and in naturally occurring blooms of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. Our results have implications for the evaluation of ciguatera risk associated with Gambierdiscus and related species. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27467390/Rapid_Extraction_and_Identification_of_Maitotoxin_and_Ciguatoxin_Like_Toxins_from_Caribbean_and_Pacific_Gambierdiscus_Using_a_New_Functional_Bioassay_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160006 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -