Chemical composition, efficacy and safety of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) to inactivate protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery.Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 82:393-8BP
At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery, however, they are associated with serious adverse side effects including sclerosing colangititis (biliary tract fibrosis), liver necrosis and methaemoglobinaemia. This investigation was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia vera (var. Fandoghi) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in mice model. The components of the P. vera essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis. Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (25-200μl/mL) were used for 5-30min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). In addition, forty male NIH mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. vera essential oil for 2 and 14 days, respectively. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), α-thujene (9.31%) and α-terpinolene (9.28%). Findings of the present study demonstrated that the P. vera essential oil at the concentrations of 100 and 200μl/mL killed 100% protoscoleces after 10 and 5min of exposure, respectively. The LD50 values of intraperitoneal injection of the P. vera essential oil was 2.69ml/kg body weight, and the maximum nonfatal doses were 1.94ml/kg body weight. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematological parameters following oral administrations of P. vera essential oil at the doses 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4ml/kg for 14 days. The obtained findings demonstrated new chemical composition and promising scolicidal activity of the P. vera with no significant toxicity which might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.