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Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea.
Sci Rep. 2016 07 29; 6:29613.SR

Abstract

Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1-4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424-426, 888-940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval-indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology-corallite height and corallite infilling-were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America. Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts 01908, United States of America.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America. Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts 01908, United States of America.Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3300 United States of America. Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts 01908, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27470426

Citation

Horvath, Kimmaree M., et al. "Next-century Ocean Acidification and Warming Both Reduce Calcification Rate, but Only Acidification Alters Skeletal Morphology of Reef-building Coral Siderastrea Siderea." Scientific Reports, vol. 6, 2016, p. 29613.
Horvath KM, Castillo KD, Armstrong P, et al. Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29613.
Horvath, K. M., Castillo, K. D., Armstrong, P., Westfield, I. T., Courtney, T., & Ries, J. B. (2016). Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea. Scientific Reports, 6, 29613. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29613
Horvath KM, et al. Next-century Ocean Acidification and Warming Both Reduce Calcification Rate, but Only Acidification Alters Skeletal Morphology of Reef-building Coral Siderastrea Siderea. Sci Rep. 2016 07 29;6:29613. PubMed PMID: 27470426.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea. AU - Horvath,Kimmaree M, AU - Castillo,Karl D, AU - Armstrong,Pualani, AU - Westfield,Isaac T, AU - Courtney,Travis, AU - Ries,Justin B, Y1 - 2016/07/29/ PY - 2016/02/08/received PY - 2016/06/22/accepted PY - 2016/7/30/entrez PY - 2016/7/30/pubmed PY - 2018/5/22/medline SP - 29613 EP - 29613 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 6 N2 - Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1-4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424-426, 888-940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval-indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology-corallite height and corallite infilling-were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27470426/Next_century_ocean_acidification_and_warming_both_reduce_calcification_rate_but_only_acidification_alters_skeletal_morphology_of_reef_building_coral_Siderastrea_siderea_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep29613 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -