Modified Nutritional Recommendations to Improve Dietary Patterns and Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients.J Ren Nutr. 2017 01; 27(1):62-70.JR
The renal diet has traditionally been regarded as one of the most complex medical nutrition therapies to teach, understand, and implement. Specifically, patients are instructed to limit fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, dairy, and whole grains because of both phosphorus and potassium concerns. Furthermore, hemodialysis patients are often encouraged to decrease fluid intake to control interdialytic weight gain. These restrictions can result in frustration, lack of autonomy, and the perception that there is nothing left to eat. It is possible that the traditional renal diet may be liberalized, with a focus on whole foods low in sodium and phosphorus additives, to afford patients greater choices and ultimately improved outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this review is to concisely assess the evidence in support of a renal diet focused primarily on reducing the intake of sodium and inorganic phosphorus. Finally, the limited evidence for restrictions on dietary potassium intake is summarized.