Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n) signaling along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO).J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2016 11; 123(11):1235-1245.JN
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator with various roles, including neuro-modulation, vascular tone regulation, and cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and oxygen sensing. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n), which possesses a higher number of sulfur atoms than H2S, recently emerged as a potential signaling molecule that regulates the activity of ion channels, a tumor suppressor, transcription factors, and protein kinases. Some of the previously reported effects of H2S are now attributed to the more potent H2S n . H2S n is produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) and is generated by the chemical interaction of H2S with nitric oxide (NO). H2S n sulfhydrates (sulfurates) cysteine residues of target proteins and modifies their activity, whereas H2S sulfurates oxidized cysteine residues as well as reduces cysteine disulfide bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress made in studies concerning the production and physiological roles of H2S n and H2S.