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Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2016 Sep; 14(3):2778-84.MM

Abstract

Ginsenoside Rg1 is the primary active substance in ginseng, and it has multiple pharmacological actions. Investigations on the pharmacologic action of ginsenoside Rg1 have developed, with a particular focus on the regulation of metabolism. The present study hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevent cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) pathway in aged rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into isoflurane and ginsenoside Rg1 groups and were treated with 20 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 for 7 days. Morris water maze was performed to analyze the cognitive function of the rats. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays were used to analyze the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and caspase 3. The protein expression levels of AKT, GSK 3β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 were measured using western blot analysis. Ginsenoside Rg1 significantly improved cognitive function, and exhibited antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects, demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against the effect of isoflurane anesthesia in the rats. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity, upregulated the expression of PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β and downregulated the mRNA expression levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 in the aged rats exposed to isoflurane anesthesia. The data obtained in the present study provided evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevented the cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β pathway.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Beidaihe Sanatorium of Beijing Military Command, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066000, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, P.R. China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27485139

Citation

Zhang, Yini, et al. "Neuroprotective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 Prevents Cognitive Impairment Induced By Isoflurane Anesthesia in Aged Rats Via Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Effects Mediated By the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β Pathway." Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 14, no. 3, 2016, pp. 2778-84.
Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Wang H, et al. Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14(3):2778-84.
Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z., Wang, H., Cai, N., Zhou, S., Zhao, Y., Chen, X., Zheng, S., Si, Q., & Zhang, W. (2016). Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway. Molecular Medicine Reports, 14(3), 2778-84. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2016.5556
Zhang Y, et al. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 Prevents Cognitive Impairment Induced By Isoflurane Anesthesia in Aged Rats Via Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Effects Mediated By the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β Pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14(3):2778-84. PubMed PMID: 27485139.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia in aged rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway. AU - Zhang,Yini, AU - Zhang,Zhao, AU - Wang,Haitang, AU - Cai,Nan, AU - Zhou,Shuang, AU - Zhao,Yaoping, AU - Chen,Xue, AU - Zheng,Shaoqiang, AU - Si,Qi, AU - Zhang,Wei, Y1 - 2016/07/27/ PY - 2015/06/07/received PY - 2016/05/25/accepted PY - 2016/8/4/entrez PY - 2016/8/4/pubmed PY - 2017/4/7/medline SP - 2778 EP - 84 JF - Molecular medicine reports JO - Mol Med Rep VL - 14 IS - 3 N2 - Ginsenoside Rg1 is the primary active substance in ginseng, and it has multiple pharmacological actions. Investigations on the pharmacologic action of ginsenoside Rg1 have developed, with a particular focus on the regulation of metabolism. The present study hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevent cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) pathway in aged rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into isoflurane and ginsenoside Rg1 groups and were treated with 20 mg/kg ginsenoside Rg1 for 7 days. Morris water maze was performed to analyze the cognitive function of the rats. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays were used to analyze the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and caspase 3. The protein expression levels of AKT, GSK 3β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 were measured using western blot analysis. Ginsenoside Rg1 significantly improved cognitive function, and exhibited antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects, demonstrating the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against the effect of isoflurane anesthesia in the rats. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity, upregulated the expression of PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β and downregulated the mRNA expression levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 in the aged rats exposed to isoflurane anesthesia. The data obtained in the present study provided evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 prevented the cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane anesthesia via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑apoptotic effects, mediated by the PI3K/AKT/GSK‑3β pathway. SN - 1791-3004 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27485139/Neuroprotective_effect_of_ginsenoside_Rg1_prevents_cognitive_impairment_induced_by_isoflurane_anesthesia_in_aged_rats_via_antioxidant_anti_inflammatory_and_anti_apoptotic_effects_mediated_by_the_PI3K/AKT/GSK_3β_pathway_ L2 - http://www.spandidos-publications.com/mmr/14/3/2778 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -