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Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes.
Appetite. 2016 12 01; 107:188-195.A

Abstract

This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment.

DIRECTIVE CONTROL

Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes.

NON-DIRECTIVE CONTROL

An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores.

TOTAL VARIANCE

Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded unique associations with child dietary and weight outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address: kloth@umn.edu.School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27486926

Citation

Loth, K A., et al. "Directive and Non-directive Food-related Parenting Practices: Associations Between an Expanded Conceptualization of Food-related Parenting Practices and Child Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes." Appetite, vol. 107, 2016, pp. 188-195.
Loth KA, Friend S, Horning ML, et al. Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes. Appetite. 2016;107:188-195.
Loth, K. A., Friend, S., Horning, M. L., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Fulkerson, J. A. (2016). Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes. Appetite, 107, 188-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.036
Loth KA, et al. Directive and Non-directive Food-related Parenting Practices: Associations Between an Expanded Conceptualization of Food-related Parenting Practices and Child Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes. Appetite. 2016 12 1;107:188-195. PubMed PMID: 27486926.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices and child dietary intake and weight outcomes. AU - Loth,K A, AU - Friend,S, AU - Horning,M L, AU - Neumark-Sztainer,D, AU - Fulkerson,J A, Y1 - 2016/07/31/ PY - 2016/04/14/received PY - 2016/07/12/revised PY - 2016/07/27/accepted PY - 2016/8/4/pubmed PY - 2018/1/13/medline PY - 2016/8/4/entrez KW - Child BMI KW - Child dietary intake KW - Child feeding practices KW - Food-related parenting practices KW - Home food environment KW - Parental role modeling KW - Pressure-to-eat KW - Restriction SP - 188 EP - 195 JF - Appetite JO - Appetite VL - 107 N2 - : This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. DIRECTIVE CONTROL: Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. NON-DIRECTIVE CONTROL: An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. TOTAL VARIANCE: Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded unique associations with child dietary and weight outcomes. SN - 1095-8304 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27486926/Directive_and_non_directive_food_related_parenting_practices:_Associations_between_an_expanded_conceptualization_of_food_related_parenting_practices_and_child_dietary_intake_and_weight_outcomes_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195-6663(16)30305-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -