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Intraoperative workload in robotic surgery assessed by wearable motion tracking sensors and questionnaires.
Surg Endosc. 2017 02; 31(2):877-886.SE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The introduction of robotic technology has revolutionized radical prostatectomy surgery. However, the potential benefits of robotic techniques may have trade-offs in increased mental demand for the surgeon and the physical demand for the assisting surgeon. This study employed an innovative motion tracking tool along with validated workload questionnaire to assess the ergonomics and workload for both assisting and console surgeons intraoperatively.

METHODS

Fifteen RARP cases were collected in this study. Cases were performed by 10 different participants, six primarily performed console tasks and four primarily performed assisting tasks. Participants had a median 12 (min-3, max-25) years of surgical experience. Both console and assisting surgeons performed robotic prostatectomy cases while wearing inertial measurement units (IMUs) that continuously track neck, shoulder, and torso motion without interfering with the sterile environment. Postoperatively, participants completed a workload questionnaire (SURG-TLX) and a body part discomfort questionnaire.

RESULTS

Twenty-six questionnaires were completed from 13 assisting and 13 console surgeons over the 15 cases. Postoperative pain was reported highest for the right shoulder and neck. Mental demands were 41 % higher for surgeons at the console than assisting (p < 0.05), while physical demands were not significantly different. Assisting surgeons worked in demanding neck postures for 58 % of the procedure compared to 24 % for the console surgeon (p < 0.01). Surgeons at the console were primarily static and showed 2-5 times fewer movements than assisting surgeons (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Postures were more ergonomic during console tasks than when assisting by the bedside; however, the console may constrain postures leading to static loads that have been associated with musculoskeletal symptoms for the neck, torso, and shoulders. The IMU sensors were effective at quantifying ergonomics in robotic prostatectomies, and these methods and findings have broad applications to other robotic procedures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Hallbeck.Susan@mayo.edu. Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Hallbeck.Susan@mayo.edu.Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27495330

Citation

Yu, Denny, et al. "Intraoperative Workload in Robotic Surgery Assessed By Wearable Motion Tracking Sensors and Questionnaires." Surgical Endoscopy, vol. 31, no. 2, 2017, pp. 877-886.
Yu D, Dural C, Morrow MM, et al. Intraoperative workload in robotic surgery assessed by wearable motion tracking sensors and questionnaires. Surg Endosc. 2017;31(2):877-886.
Yu, D., Dural, C., Morrow, M. M., Yang, L., Collins, J. W., Hallbeck, S., Kjellman, M., & Forsman, M. (2017). Intraoperative workload in robotic surgery assessed by wearable motion tracking sensors and questionnaires. Surgical Endoscopy, 31(2), 877-886. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5047-y
Yu D, et al. Intraoperative Workload in Robotic Surgery Assessed By Wearable Motion Tracking Sensors and Questionnaires. Surg Endosc. 2017;31(2):877-886. PubMed PMID: 27495330.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intraoperative workload in robotic surgery assessed by wearable motion tracking sensors and questionnaires. AU - Yu,Denny, AU - Dural,Cem, AU - Morrow,Melissa M B, AU - Yang,Liyun, AU - Collins,Justin W, AU - Hallbeck,Susan, AU - Kjellman,Magnus, AU - Forsman,Mikael, Y1 - 2016/08/05/ PY - 2016/02/04/received PY - 2016/06/11/accepted PY - 2016/8/9/pubmed PY - 2017/8/24/medline PY - 2016/8/7/entrez KW - Ergonomics KW - Robotic surgery KW - Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy KW - Workload SP - 877 EP - 886 JF - Surgical endoscopy JO - Surg Endosc VL - 31 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The introduction of robotic technology has revolutionized radical prostatectomy surgery. However, the potential benefits of robotic techniques may have trade-offs in increased mental demand for the surgeon and the physical demand for the assisting surgeon. This study employed an innovative motion tracking tool along with validated workload questionnaire to assess the ergonomics and workload for both assisting and console surgeons intraoperatively. METHODS: Fifteen RARP cases were collected in this study. Cases were performed by 10 different participants, six primarily performed console tasks and four primarily performed assisting tasks. Participants had a median 12 (min-3, max-25) years of surgical experience. Both console and assisting surgeons performed robotic prostatectomy cases while wearing inertial measurement units (IMUs) that continuously track neck, shoulder, and torso motion without interfering with the sterile environment. Postoperatively, participants completed a workload questionnaire (SURG-TLX) and a body part discomfort questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty-six questionnaires were completed from 13 assisting and 13 console surgeons over the 15 cases. Postoperative pain was reported highest for the right shoulder and neck. Mental demands were 41 % higher for surgeons at the console than assisting (p < 0.05), while physical demands were not significantly different. Assisting surgeons worked in demanding neck postures for 58 % of the procedure compared to 24 % for the console surgeon (p < 0.01). Surgeons at the console were primarily static and showed 2-5 times fewer movements than assisting surgeons (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Postures were more ergonomic during console tasks than when assisting by the bedside; however, the console may constrain postures leading to static loads that have been associated with musculoskeletal symptoms for the neck, torso, and shoulders. The IMU sensors were effective at quantifying ergonomics in robotic prostatectomies, and these methods and findings have broad applications to other robotic procedures. SN - 1432-2218 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27495330/Intraoperative_workload_in_robotic_surgery_assessed_by_wearable_motion_tracking_sensors_and_questionnaires_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5047-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -