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Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.
Evolution. 2016 10; 70(10):2171-2185.E

Abstract

The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high-latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit microevolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macroecological patterns. High-latitude regions are both cradle and grave with respect to species diversification. In particular, we point to a conceptual equivalence of "environmental harshness" and "hard selection" as eco-evolutionary drivers of local adaptation and ecological speciation. By describing how ecological speciation likely occurs more readily at high latitudes, with such nascent species especially prone to extinction by fusion, we derive the ephemeral ecological speciation hypothesis as an integrative mechanistic explanation for latitudinal gradients in species turnover and the net accumulation of biodiversity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada. asher.cutter@utoronto.ca.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27502055

Citation

Cutter, Asher D., and Jeremy C. Gray. "Ephemeral Ecological Speciation and the Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient." Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, vol. 70, no. 10, 2016, pp. 2171-2185.
Cutter AD, Gray JC. Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. Evolution. 2016;70(10):2171-2185.
Cutter, A. D., & Gray, J. C. (2016). Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution, 70(10), 2171-2185. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13030
Cutter AD, Gray JC. Ephemeral Ecological Speciation and the Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient. Evolution. 2016;70(10):2171-2185. PubMed PMID: 27502055.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. AU - Cutter,Asher D, AU - Gray,Jeremy C, Y1 - 2016/08/23/ PY - 2016/02/10/received PY - 2016/07/29/accepted PY - 2016/8/10/pubmed PY - 2017/7/8/medline PY - 2016/8/10/entrez KW - Adaptation KW - biodiversity KW - extinction KW - latitude KW - speciation SP - 2171 EP - 2185 JF - Evolution; international journal of organic evolution JO - Evolution VL - 70 IS - 10 N2 - The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high-latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit microevolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macroecological patterns. High-latitude regions are both cradle and grave with respect to species diversification. In particular, we point to a conceptual equivalence of "environmental harshness" and "hard selection" as eco-evolutionary drivers of local adaptation and ecological speciation. By describing how ecological speciation likely occurs more readily at high latitudes, with such nascent species especially prone to extinction by fusion, we derive the ephemeral ecological speciation hypothesis as an integrative mechanistic explanation for latitudinal gradients in species turnover and the net accumulation of biodiversity. SN - 1558-5646 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27502055/Ephemeral_ecological_speciation_and_the_latitudinal_biodiversity_gradient_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13030 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -