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Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

Abstract

We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with overall breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that high whole grain food intake may be associated with lower breast cancer risk before menopause. Fiber in whole grain foods may mediate the association with whole grains.

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    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. mfarvid@hsph.harvard.edu. Harvard/MGH Center on Genomics, Vulnerable Populations, and Health Disparities, Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. mfarvid@hsph.harvard.edu.

    ,

    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.

    ,

    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

    ,

    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

    Source

    Breast cancer research and treatment 159:2 2016 Sep pg 335-45

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Breast Neoplasms
    Dietary Fiber
    Edible Grain
    Female
    Humans
    Incidence
    Nurses
    Premenopause
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27510186

    Citation

    Farvid, Maryam S., et al. "Lifetime Grain Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 159, no. 2, 2016, pp. 335-45.
    Farvid MS, Cho E, Eliassen AH, et al. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;159(2):335-45.
    Farvid, M. S., Cho, E., Eliassen, A. H., Chen, W. Y., & Willett, W. C. (2016). Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 159(2), pp. 335-45. doi:10.1007/s10549-016-3910-0.
    Farvid MS, et al. Lifetime Grain Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;159(2):335-45. PubMed PMID: 27510186.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. AU - Farvid,Maryam S, AU - Cho,Eunyoung, AU - Eliassen,A Heather, AU - Chen,Wendy Y, AU - Willett,Walter C, Y1 - 2016/08/10/ PY - 2016/07/08/received PY - 2016/07/11/accepted PY - 2016/8/12/entrez PY - 2016/8/12/pubmed PY - 2017/12/14/medline KW - Breast cancer KW - Refined grain foods KW - Whole grain foods SP - 335 EP - 45 JF - Breast cancer research and treatment JO - Breast Cancer Res. Treat. VL - 159 IS - 2 N2 - We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with overall breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that high whole grain food intake may be associated with lower breast cancer risk before menopause. Fiber in whole grain foods may mediate the association with whole grains. SN - 1573-7217 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27510186/Lifetime_grain_consumption_and_breast_cancer_risk_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-016-3910-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -