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Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.
J Nutr. 2016 09; 146(9):1916S-23S.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status.

OBJECTIVE

We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children <24 mo of age.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was carried out in 926 children aged <24 mo participating in the 2012 ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design.

RESULTS

Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION

Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Nutrition and Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; and.Department of Health, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Mexico.Center for Nutrition and Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; and.Center for Nutrition and Health Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; and.Department of Health, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Mexico teresita.glezdecosio@ibero.mx.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27511938

Citation

Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia, et al. "Mexican Children Under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 9, 2016, 1916S-23S.
Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Muñoz-Espinosa A, Rivera JA, et al. Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients. J Nutr. 2016;146(9):1916S-23S.
Rodríguez-Ramírez, S., Muñoz-Espinosa, A., Rivera, J. A., González-Castell, D., & González de Cosío, T. (2016). Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(9), 1916S-23S. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.220145
Rodríguez-Ramírez S, et al. Mexican Children Under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients. J Nutr. 2016;146(9):1916S-23S. PubMed PMID: 27511938.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients. AU - Rodríguez-Ramírez,Sonia, AU - Muñoz-Espinosa,Alicia, AU - Rivera,Juan A, AU - González-Castell,Dinorah, AU - González de Cosío,Teresita, Y1 - 2016/08/10/ PY - 2015/07/06/received PY - 2016/04/01/accepted PY - 2016/8/12/entrez PY - 2016/8/12/pubmed PY - 2017/6/28/medline KW - Mexico KW - beverage consumption KW - breastfeeding KW - children KW - complementary feeding SP - 1916S EP - 23S JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 146 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children <24 mo of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 926 children aged <24 mo participating in the 2012 ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design. RESULTS: Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27511938/Mexican_Children_under_2_Years_of_Age_Consume_Food_Groups_High_in_Energy_and_Low_in_Micronutrients_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.115.220145 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -