Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.J Nutr. 2016 09; 146(9):1897S-906S.JN
Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations.
Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups.
We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables.
For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas.
These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population.