Innate Immune Responses to Fungal Allergens.Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 09; 16(9):62.CA
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
In this review, we describe innate immunity to fungi and the ability of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize fungal-associated molecular patterns (FAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
Protective responses against fungal antigens can be divided into two parts: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Detection of foreign substance by the innate immune system is mediated by a variety of genetically encoded receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs bind to PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and more specifically to fungal-associated molecular patterns or FAMPs on target microorganisms. They also bind to DAMPs (damage-associated molecular patterns) which are substances released due to tissue and cell damage. PRRs can be divided into several families including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and C-type lectin receptors. Fungal PRRs can respond to internal and external components found in fungi. In addition, a number of fungal products, including some fungal allergens, seem to mimic or represent DAMPs. Collectively, activation of these fungal PRRs alerts the innate immune system to the presence of fungal exposure and can promote both innate and adaptive immune responses.