Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Aug 31; 64(34):6555-66.JA
The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.