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Stone Retropulsion with Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study.
J Endourol. 2016 11; 30(11):1145-1149.JE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the retropulsion of stones with the use of holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho: YAG) laser and thulium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Tm: YAG) laser in settings that could be used in clinical practice.

METHODS

The experimental configuration included a glass tube set in a water bath filled with physiologic saline. Plaster of Paris stones were inserted in the tube. Tm: YAG and Ho: YAG laser systems were used along with a high-speed slow-motion camera. The lasers were activated with different settings. The displacement of the stone was measured according to a custom-made algorithm.

RESULTS

Ho: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 0.5 J and the frequency of 20 Hz with long pulse duration. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 3 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse. Tm: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 1 J and the frequency of 10 Hz with either long or short pulse duration. Practically, there was no retropulsion at all. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 8 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse.

CONCLUSION

Ho: YAG laser has a linear increase in stone retropulsion with increased pulse energy. On the other hand, the retropulsion rate was kept to the minimum with Tm: YAG as much as the energy level of 8 J. The activation of lasers with short pulse resulted in further displacement of the stone. Lower frequency with the same power setting seemed to result in further stone retropulsion. Higher power with the same frequency setting resulted in further displacement of the stone.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Department of Urology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .1 Department of Urology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .2 Electronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .3 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .1 Department of Urology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .1 Department of Urology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .1 Department of Urology, University of Patras , Patras, Greece .

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27527803

Citation

Kamal, Wissam, et al. "Stone Retropulsion With Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: a Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study." Journal of Endourology, vol. 30, no. 11, 2016, pp. 1145-1149.
Kamal W, Kallidonis P, Koukiou G, et al. Stone Retropulsion with Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study. J Endourol. 2016;30(11):1145-1149.
Kamal, W., Kallidonis, P., Koukiou, G., Amanatides, L., Panagopoulos, V., Ntasiotis, P., & Liatsikos, E. (2016). Stone Retropulsion with Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study. Journal of Endourology, 30(11), 1145-1149.
Kamal W, et al. Stone Retropulsion With Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: a Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study. J Endourol. 2016;30(11):1145-1149. PubMed PMID: 27527803.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Stone Retropulsion with Ho: YAG and Tm: YAG Lasers: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Experimental Study. AU - Kamal,Wissam, AU - Kallidonis,Panagiotis, AU - Koukiou,Georgia, AU - Amanatides,Lefteris, AU - Panagopoulos,Vasileios, AU - Ntasiotis,Pantelis, AU - Liatsikos,Evangelos, PY - 2016/8/17/pubmed PY - 2017/8/24/medline PY - 2016/8/17/entrez KW - Holmium KW - laser KW - retropulsion KW - thulium SP - 1145 EP - 1149 JF - Journal of endourology JO - J. Endourol. VL - 30 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare the retropulsion of stones with the use of holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho: YAG) laser and thulium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Tm: YAG) laser in settings that could be used in clinical practice. METHODS: The experimental configuration included a glass tube set in a water bath filled with physiologic saline. Plaster of Paris stones were inserted in the tube. Tm: YAG and Ho: YAG laser systems were used along with a high-speed slow-motion camera. The lasers were activated with different settings. The displacement of the stone was measured according to a custom-made algorithm. RESULTS: Ho: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 0.5 J and the frequency of 20 Hz with long pulse duration. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 3 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse. Tm: YAG: the retropulsion of stones was the lowest with the energy setting of 1 J and the frequency of 10 Hz with either long or short pulse duration. Practically, there was no retropulsion at all. The highest retropulsion was observed in the case of 8 J, 5 Hz, and short pulse. CONCLUSION: Ho: YAG laser has a linear increase in stone retropulsion with increased pulse energy. On the other hand, the retropulsion rate was kept to the minimum with Tm: YAG as much as the energy level of 8 J. The activation of lasers with short pulse resulted in further displacement of the stone. Lower frequency with the same power setting seemed to result in further stone retropulsion. Higher power with the same frequency setting resulted in further displacement of the stone. SN - 1557-900X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27527803/Stone_Retropulsion_with_Ho:_YAG_and_Tm:_YAG_Lasers:_A_Clinical_Practice_Oriented_Experimental_Study_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/end.2016.0212?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -