Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Grewia asiatica Linn. bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 18; 16:295.BC
Inspite of introduction of oral hypoglycemic agents, diabetes and its related complications remains to be a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Grewia asiatica (Linn) stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (110 mg/kg) in Norwegian Long Evans rats. Ethanol extract of barks from Grewia asiatica (GAE 200 and 400 mg/kg) and metformin (150 mg/kg) were orally administered once daily for 15 days. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on 0, 5, 10 and 15 days of oral treatment. At the end of the experiment the rats were sacrificed and blood sample were collected for the measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL), SGOT and CK-MB. Analysis of liver glycogen content and histopathlogy of pancreas were carried out. In vitro DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of GAE were also determined.
After 15 days of oral administration of GAE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased survival rate and showed a significant attenuation in blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. Oral ingestion of GAE significantly reduced the SGOT and CK-MB levels and restored liver glycogen content when compared to diabetic control. The effects of GAE on SGOT, CK-MB and liver glycogen content were dose-dependent. The diabetic rats treated with GAE showed significant improvement in normal cellular population size of islets. Phytochemical screening of GAE revealed the presence of flavonoid, steroid, tannin and phenolic compounds. Total phenolic content was 44.65 ± 3.17 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gm of GAE extract and the total flavonoid content was 39.11 ± 4.65 mg of quercetin equivalent per gm of GAE extract. In DPPH scavenging assay, IC50 values of GAE and ascorbic acid were found 76.45 and 12.50 μg/ml, respectively.
We demonstrated that ethanol extract of barks from G. asiatica possess glucose, lipid lowering efficacy, restored liver glycogen and protects pancreas from oxidative damage in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, the results of the present study provide a scientific rationale for the use of G. asiatica in the management of diabetes and its related complications.