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Glaucoma: the retina and beyond.

Abstract

Over 60 million people worldwide are diagnosed with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is estimated to be responsible for 8.4 million cases of irreversible blindness globally. Glaucoma is associated with characteristic damage to the optic nerve and patterns of visual field loss which principally involves the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At present, intraocular pressure (IOP) presents the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, although RGC and vision loss can continue in patients despite well-controlled IOP. This, coupled with the present inability to diagnose glaucoma until relatively late in the disease process, has led to intense investigations towards the development of novel techniques for the early diagnosis of disease. This review outlines our current understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying RGC and axonal loss in glaucoma. Similarities between glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are drawn before an overview of recent developments in techniques for monitoring RGC health is provided, including recent progress towards the development of RGC specific contrast agents. The review concludes by discussing techniques to assess glaucomatous changes in the brain using MRI and the clinical relevance of glaucomatous-associated changes in the visual centres of the brain.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, UK.

    ,

    Western Eye Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, 153-173 Marylebone Road, London, UK.

    ,

    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, UK.

    ,

    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, UK.

    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, UK. M.Cordeiro@ucl.ac.uk. Western Eye Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, 153-173 Marylebone Road, London, UK. M.Cordeiro@ucl.ac.uk.

    Source

    Acta neuropathologica 132:6 2016 12 pg 807-826

    MeSH

    Animals
    Axons
    Glaucoma
    Humans
    Optic Nerve
    Retina
    Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    27544758

    Citation

    Davis, Benjamin Michael, et al. "Glaucoma: the Retina and Beyond." Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 132, no. 6, 2016, pp. 807-826.
    Davis BM, Crawley L, Pahlitzsch M, et al. Glaucoma: the retina and beyond. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132(6):807-826.
    Davis, B. M., Crawley, L., Pahlitzsch, M., Javaid, F., & Cordeiro, M. F. (2016). Glaucoma: the retina and beyond. Acta Neuropathologica, 132(6), pp. 807-826.
    Davis BM, et al. Glaucoma: the Retina and Beyond. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132(6):807-826. PubMed PMID: 27544758.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Glaucoma: the retina and beyond. AU - Davis,Benjamin Michael, AU - Crawley,Laura, AU - Pahlitzsch,Milena, AU - Javaid,Fatimah, AU - Cordeiro,Maria Francesca, Y1 - 2016/08/20/ PY - 2016/05/20/received PY - 2016/08/10/accepted PY - 2016/08/02/revised PY - 2016/8/22/pubmed PY - 2017/9/21/medline PY - 2016/8/22/entrez KW - Cell death KW - Glaucoma KW - Imaging KW - Neurodegeneration KW - Retina KW - Retinal ganglion cell SP - 807 EP - 826 JF - Acta neuropathologica JO - Acta Neuropathol. VL - 132 IS - 6 N2 - Over 60 million people worldwide are diagnosed with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is estimated to be responsible for 8.4 million cases of irreversible blindness globally. Glaucoma is associated with characteristic damage to the optic nerve and patterns of visual field loss which principally involves the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At present, intraocular pressure (IOP) presents the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, although RGC and vision loss can continue in patients despite well-controlled IOP. This, coupled with the present inability to diagnose glaucoma until relatively late in the disease process, has led to intense investigations towards the development of novel techniques for the early diagnosis of disease. This review outlines our current understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying RGC and axonal loss in glaucoma. Similarities between glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are drawn before an overview of recent developments in techniques for monitoring RGC health is provided, including recent progress towards the development of RGC specific contrast agents. The review concludes by discussing techniques to assess glaucomatous changes in the brain using MRI and the clinical relevance of glaucomatous-associated changes in the visual centres of the brain. SN - 1432-0533 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27544758/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1609-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -