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Effects of soil erosion and anoxic-euxinic ocean in the Permian-Triassic marine crisis.
Heliyon. 2016 Aug; 2(8):e00137.H

Abstract

The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth's history occurred during the Permian-Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to the surface water, a decrease in pH, and hypercapnia have been proposed as direct causes of the marine crisis. For the first-phase extinction, we here add a causal mechanism beginning from massive soil and rock erosion and leading to algal blooms, release of toxic components, asphyxiation, and oxygen-depleted nearshore bottom water that created environmental stress for nearshore marine animals. For the second-phase extinction, we show that a soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event did not occur, but culmination of anoxia-euxinia in intermediate waters did occur, spanning the second-phase extinction. We investigated sedimentary organic molecules, and the results indicated a peak of a massive soil erosion proxy followed by peaks of marine productivity proxy. Anoxic proxies of surface sediments and water occurred in the shallow nearshore sea at the eastern and western margins of the Paleotethys at the first-phase extinction horizon, but not at the second-phase extinction horizon. Our reconstruction of ocean redox structure at low latitudes indicates that a gradual increase in temperature spanning the two extinctions could have induced a gradual change from a well-mixed oxic to a stratified euxinic ocean beginning immediately prior to the first-phase extinction, followed by culmination of anoxia in nearshore surface waters and of anoxia and euxinia in the shallow-intermediate waters at the second-phase extinction over a period of approximately one million years or more. Enhanced global warming, ocean acidification, and hypercapnia could have caused the second-phase extinction approximately 60 kyr after the first-phase extinction. The causes of the first-phase extinction were not only those environmental stresses but also environmental stresses caused by the soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.Department of Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27547833

Citation

Kaiho, Kunio, et al. "Effects of Soil Erosion and Anoxic-euxinic Ocean in the Permian-Triassic Marine Crisis." Heliyon, vol. 2, no. 8, 2016, pp. e00137.
Kaiho K, Saito R, Ito K, et al. Effects of soil erosion and anoxic-euxinic ocean in the Permian-Triassic marine crisis. Heliyon. 2016;2(8):e00137.
Kaiho, K., Saito, R., Ito, K., Miyaji, T., Biswas, R., Tian, L., Sano, H., Shi, Z., Takahashi, S., Tong, J., Liang, L., Oba, M., Nara, F. W., Tsuchiya, N., & Chen, Z. Q. (2016). Effects of soil erosion and anoxic-euxinic ocean in the Permian-Triassic marine crisis. Heliyon, 2(8), e00137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00137
Kaiho K, et al. Effects of Soil Erosion and Anoxic-euxinic Ocean in the Permian-Triassic Marine Crisis. Heliyon. 2016;2(8):e00137. PubMed PMID: 27547833.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of soil erosion and anoxic-euxinic ocean in the Permian-Triassic marine crisis. AU - Kaiho,Kunio, AU - Saito,Ryosuke, AU - Ito,Kosuke, AU - Miyaji,Takashi, AU - Biswas,Raman, AU - Tian,Li, AU - Sano,Hiroyoshi, AU - Shi,Zhiqiang, AU - Takahashi,Satoshi, AU - Tong,Jinnan, AU - Liang,Lei, AU - Oba,Masahiro, AU - Nara,Fumiko W, AU - Tsuchiya,Noriyoshi, AU - Chen,Zhong-Qiang, Y1 - 2016/08/08/ PY - 2015/09/22/received PY - 2016/05/11/revised PY - 2016/07/27/accepted PY - 2016/8/23/entrez PY - 2016/8/23/pubmed PY - 2016/8/23/medline KW - Earth science KW - Environmental science KW - Geochemistry KW - Geology SP - e00137 EP - e00137 JF - Heliyon VL - 2 IS - 8 N2 - The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth's history occurred during the Permian-Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to the surface water, a decrease in pH, and hypercapnia have been proposed as direct causes of the marine crisis. For the first-phase extinction, we here add a causal mechanism beginning from massive soil and rock erosion and leading to algal blooms, release of toxic components, asphyxiation, and oxygen-depleted nearshore bottom water that created environmental stress for nearshore marine animals. For the second-phase extinction, we show that a soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event did not occur, but culmination of anoxia-euxinia in intermediate waters did occur, spanning the second-phase extinction. We investigated sedimentary organic molecules, and the results indicated a peak of a massive soil erosion proxy followed by peaks of marine productivity proxy. Anoxic proxies of surface sediments and water occurred in the shallow nearshore sea at the eastern and western margins of the Paleotethys at the first-phase extinction horizon, but not at the second-phase extinction horizon. Our reconstruction of ocean redox structure at low latitudes indicates that a gradual increase in temperature spanning the two extinctions could have induced a gradual change from a well-mixed oxic to a stratified euxinic ocean beginning immediately prior to the first-phase extinction, followed by culmination of anoxia in nearshore surface waters and of anoxia and euxinia in the shallow-intermediate waters at the second-phase extinction over a period of approximately one million years or more. Enhanced global warming, ocean acidification, and hypercapnia could have caused the second-phase extinction approximately 60 kyr after the first-phase extinction. The causes of the first-phase extinction were not only those environmental stresses but also environmental stresses caused by the soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event. SN - 2405-8440 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27547833/Effects_of_soil_erosion_and_anoxic_euxinic_ocean_in_the_Permian_Triassic_marine_crisis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405-8440(15)30413-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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